Ecaterina Gore is a PhD candidate in Nutrition and Food Sciences of the Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, France. Her researches are done in the laboratories of VetAgroSup, Lempdes, France with interests primarily in the characterization of potential acid load of dairy products. Her work focuses on explaining the evolution of the PRAL during the cheese manufacturing, especially in blue veined cheeses. Ecaterina graduated from the University of Nantes, France with a Master Degree in Food Science and Nutrition in 2012. Before coming to France she graduated with an Engineer License from the University of Moldova in Technology and Food Sciences in 2011.
Among food groups cheeses exhibit the highest Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL), meaning that in the long term their consumption can contribute to the establishment of a low grade metabolic acidosis. PRAL is an index estimated from protein, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium contents per 100g of product. In the case of cheeses, this acid load is originated in the cheese-making process. The aim of this study is to determine the key factors in the evolution of PRAL during the cheese-making process of Fourme d’Ambert, a French PDO blue veined cheese. Three production batches are studied. Protein and mineral content are determined throughout the cheese-making process, by analyzing raw, pasteurized, matured milk, curd, brewed and drained curd, brine salted curd and cheese at different moments of ripening (21, 28, and 42 days). PRAL values from reception to coagulation remain constant about 0 mEq/100g. After brewing and partial draining the PRAL of the curd reaches 4.50±1.08 mEq/100g. It reaches 11.95±2.64 mEq/100g after 24 hours of draining. After brine salting the PRAL is situated at 14.57±1.78 mEq/100g with non-significant variations during the 42 days of ripening (p<0.05). The most significant impact on the PRAL is provided by phosphorus and protein content, as acidifying agents, calcium, as alkalizing agent, whereas potassium and magnesium had little impact on the acid load of Fourme d’Ambert cheese. Curdling and draining are therefore the key processing steps responsible for the high increase of PRAL during the manufacture. The salting step must also be considered in the modulation of the cheese’s acid load.
Key words: Mediterranean Diet, ischemia-reperfusion injury, infarct size, omega-3 fatty acids. Background: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) complications, such as chronic arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury results in smaller myocardial infarction, which is a major factor in the occurrence of CHD complications. Objectives: We hypothesized that a specific dietary fatty acid profile (low in saturated and n-6 PUFA but high in plant and marine n-3 PUFA) may improve myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduce infarct size. To test this assumption, we used a well-defined rat model of myocardial infarction. Results: In comparison to a diet that is high in either saturated or n-6 PUFA but poor in plant and marine n-3 PUFA, a diet that is low in saturated fats and n-6 PUFA but rich in plant and marine n-3 PUFA results in smaller myocardial infarct size (P<0.01). The effects of the 3 diets were also examined by analyzing the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte cell membranes, and the phospholipids of myocardial mitochondria. The results show a great accumulation of n-3 PUFA and a parallel decrease in arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, in plasma, cell membranes, and cardiac mitochondria (P<0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion may be one of the critical factors explaining the protective effects of dietary n-3 PUFA against CHD complications in humans. In addition to increasing n-3 PUFA intake, an optimal dietary pattern aimed at reducing cardiovascular mortality should include a reduction of the intake of both saturated and n-6 PUFA.