Day 1 :
University Hospital Center of Bordeaux, France
Keynote: Randomized Trial of Nutritional Intervention Evaluating the Effect of Rapeseedoil, Margarine Enriched Omega 3 and their association in relation to a standard dietbased on olive oil
Time : 09:30-10:10
Claude Billeaud received his MD degree from the Medical University of Bordeaux ( France) in 1979 after a graduation in human cytogenetics (1976). He then studied pediatrics and has been the Clinical Assistant Director of Bordeaux University in the departments of Pediatrics, Neonatology and Intensive Care since 1983. He currently serves as a pediatrician in the neonatal unit at the Children’s Hospital of Bordeaux, as a scientific manager of Bordeaux-Marmande human milk bank, as a lecturer and head of research (HDR : Habilitation to direct research) in neonatal nutrition at the Medical University of Bordeaux. His particular interest in research led him to graduate in Biology and Health (1988, Bordeaux), be awarded a master in statistics applied to clinical research ( 1991, Montreal) and complete a PhD in nutrition and food science (2000, Bordeaux). Along his career he has often been invited as a guest professor specialised in nutrition and neonatology in various universities abroad ( Montreal, Corrientes in Argentina). Over the last 35 years, he has been an active member of different scientific organisations, either French, European or American, specialised in perinatal medicine (neonatology, pediatrics and nutrition). In this instance, he has served as the President of the Association for Pediatric Education in Europe (A.P.E.E) since 2008 and behalf APEE he is Member of European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP). He has also been very involved in the French human milk banking association (ADLF) for more than 10 years, sharing his academic knowledge focused in nutrition and his long clinical experience in neonatology. He is currently carrying out several researches on the composition of human milk. As an expert in nutrition and perinatal medicine, he is also the author and co-author of numerous scientific publications.
Introduction / Objectives :
Polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFA) long chain, especially n-6 arachidonicacid (ARA) and the docosahexaenoicacid n-3 (DHA), are important in the development and maturation of the newbornbrainsystem .Their content in human milk (HM) varies with the mother's diet. Supplementationwith n-3 PUFA (α-linolenicacid, ALA) could increase the concentration of DHA in milk. The objective of the study was to assess the composition of breast milk after 15 days supplementation of n-3 PUFAs.
Material and Methods:
Multicentric randomized trial (human milk banks : Bordeaux, Lyon, Paris, Montpellier), according to a factorial design 4 groups of 20 women each. From D0 to D15, same diet (olive oil), and from D15 to D30 : diets were 1) Olive oil (O) 2) margarine rich in n-3 PUFA (M), 3) rapeseed oil (C) and 4) M + C (MC). Diets 1-4 provided an increasing ALA intake. In the 4 groups, there was constant supply of DHA (500mg / d, 170 g Mackerel 2 times / week). The FA composition of milk (% of total FA) was determined by direct transesterification and analyzed by GC-FID, blinded group. Nutritional surveys were analyzed by Bilnut software. FA concentrations at day 30 were compared between groups by linear regression, with a test interaction between M and C.
80 mothers of term infants were included: age 31.5 ± 4.2, 66.1 ± 9.8 kg (mean ± SD). ALA was higher in MC (2.2%) C (1.3%) and M (1.1%) groups (p <0.003), vs. group O (0.8%). There was a tendency for the DHA to be more higher in the MC group (0.54%) vs O group (0.39%) (p = 0.11). The ratio LA / ALA was the lowest = 5.5 (p <0.001) in the group MC and bonded to an ALA rate to 2.1%. ARA is the highest in group C (0.37% vs. 0.33% MC, M and O 0.32 0.34%) (p = 0.02).The dietary survey showed a slightly high fat diet compared to RDA.
We recommend for lactating women, a balanced varied diet consisting of 170g mackere l2 times / week or equivalent., which covers the needs for DHA and ARA. Margarine consumption Omega 3 and rapeseed oil improves the ratio LA / ALA (5.5) the most favorable ratio to increase the synthesis of DHA from ALA.
Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Time : 10:10-10:50
Almagul Kushugulova has completed her PhD at the age of 25 years from Astana Medical State University and taken Degree of D.M.Sc at National Biotechnological Centre. She is a head of Human Microbiome Lab of National laboratory Astana Nazarbayev University. She has published more than 100 papers in Kazakhstan journals, 15 in reputed Journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Journal of Clinical Medicine of Kazakhstan.
Background: The main task of joint health care is the prevention of diseases. Functional products play a significant role in preventive medicine. One such promising nutraingredient is the freeze-dried mare's milk. Due to its physiological, balanced nutrient composition, easy digestibility, the mare's milk can be used with great benefit in dietary regimens when a diet is required, which as a result helps to cleanse the body, normalize metabolism, improve blood circulation and, to some extent, slow the aging process.
Objective: The purpose of the work is to study the clinical effectiveness of freeze-dried mare's milk in inflammatory bowel diseases and chronic constipation because of the dolechosigma.
Methods: The company-producer was granted freeze-dried mare milk "Saumal". A pilot study was conducted on a two groups of children 9-12 years old with inflammatory bowel diseases and chronic constipation because of the dolechosigma.
Results: In the first group, the product as an additional food was given to children aged 9-12 years with ulcerative colitis; children had a body mass deficit of more than 10%. Patients with this disease are contraindicated in the use of cow's milk, while at the same time requires a high-calorie diet with high protein content. As a result, after 90 days of application of the product, were observed the weight stabilization with a moderate increase of 500 g.
In the second group, the product was given to children aged 9-12 years, with constipation, with diagnosis of dolichosigma, with unsiignificant effect from standard therapy. Normalization of stool frequency and consistency during the few weeks from the beginning of mare's milk was noted, no side effects were observed.
Director of the Endemic Institute of Xian Jiaotong University, China
Time : 11:10-11:50
YongMin Xiong holds the positions of director of the Endemic Institute of Xi'an Jiaotong University, deputy director of the Key Laboratory of Trace Element and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, China. Her qualifications include a Bachelor of Medicine, PhD of Medicine. She is currently the Committee member of Society of Endemic Diseases of Chinese Medical Association and chairman of Trace Elements Branch in Shaanxi Province Medical Association. She has a particular intrest in the environment and gene interactions in the molecular mechanism of endemic osteoarthritis diseases. She has published more than 30 articles in reputed journals.
Background: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic, disabling and deforming osteoarthropathy, and mainly affects children or teenagers in growth and development period. The mainly pathological changes in KBD are degeneration and necrosis in joint cartilage and epiphyseal plate cartilage. The disease has been found over 160 years, but, its etiology remains unclear. Epidemiological investigation of environmental risks has shown that selenium deficiency may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of KBD and Se supplementation could significantly decrease the incidence of KBD. Thus, it is considered that Se deficiency is a main environmental factor of KBD, however, the exact molecular mechanism for KBD treatment with Se is still obscure.
Objective: Screening of KBD susceptibility genes and related functional experiments were conducted in order to illuminate molecular mechanism of selenoprotein on cartilage cell oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis signaling pathway, and further search new molecular targets for the early diagnosis, warning and treatment of KBD.
Methods: Selenoprotein gene transcription level, protein expression level and enzymatic activity in KBD and normal blood and cartilage samples were detected by using qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot. Selenoprotein single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by using PCR-RFLP and ARMS-PCR. The protein expression levels of inflammation and oxidative stress signaling molecules in whole blood and chondrocytes were detected by western blot. The chondrocyte oxidative damage model was established using hydrogen peroxide tert butyl alcohol (tBHP), and the oxidative damage effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress, inflammation signaling pathways in chondrocyte were observed in the model to explore protective mechanism of selenium.
Results：1. The mRNA expression levels of 9 selenoprotein genes in blood and 4 in cartilage were detected, among which mRNA expression of GPx1, GPx4, SEPP, TrxR and DIO2 in whole blood decreased in the KBD group compared to controls, and mRNA expression of GPx1, GPx4 and DIO2 in cartilage decreased in the KBD group compared to controls. 2. In this experiment, 11 SNPs from 7 important selenoprotein genes were screened, the results showed that GPx1Pro198Leu, GPx4Haplotype(rs713041, rs4807542), SEPS1(rs28665122, rs34713741), SEP15 rs5859 displayed significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequency between the KBD and control groups, while TrxR2(rs5748469, rs1139793, rs5746841)，SEPP1(rs7579) and DIO2 (rs225014) showed no significant differences. 3. The protein expression levels of inflammation and oxidative stress signal transduction pathways were observed between KBD patients and controls. The protein expression levels of PI3K/AKt, ERK, JNK, Nrf2-ARE, NFκB and AP1 signal molecule in KBD group were significantly higher than that in control group, while protein expression levels of ERK in KBD patients was decreased than that in control group, indicating that signaling pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis were disordered in KBD patients. 4. In genotype subgroup analyses, GPx enzyme activity decreased in the variant genotype GPx1Pro198Leu, and PI3K/AKt signaling pathway were up-regulated in the variant genotype (AA) individual in SEPS1-105G>A (rs28665122). These suggested that selenoprotein polymorphism had important role in regulating GPx enzyme activity and PI3K/AKt signaling. 5. 300 μmol/L tBHP could induce apoptosis and suppress cell survival in human chondrocyte C28 cells, the up-regulation of protein expression levels of c-jun, p-c-jun, MEKK1, p-JNK, AP-1 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed. Pre-protection with Na2SeO3 (0.05 μg/mL, 0.1 μg/mL) could ameliorate the cell apoptosis, inhibit the ROS generation, and regulate the protein expression levels of the signaling molecular.
Conclusions: The results indicated that some important SNPs of selenoprotein are associated with the risk of development of KBD, including GPX1Pro198Leu, GPx4 (rs713041, rs4807542), SEPS1G-105A, sep15rs5859, which might influence inflammation or oxidative stress signal pathways in KBD patients. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress might be mediated via up-regulation of PI3K/Akt, JNK, NFκB and AP1 signaling pathways related to inflammation and oxidative stress, and Na2SeO3 has an effect of anti-apoptosis by down-regulating the signaling pathways.