Dr. Jasminka Ilich is the Hazel Stiebeling professor of nutrition at the Florida State University. She earned her PhD at the Ohio State University and the University of Zagreb, Croatia in Medicinal Sciences and her MS at the University of Utah in Foods and Nutrition. Her research includes clinical studies in older women with nutritional interventions incorporating behavioral modification and modes of physical activity for augmentation of bone and body composition. Dr. Ilich has recently identified a triad incorporating bone loss, muscle loss and adipose tissue expansion and termed it “osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome”. Recently, she started investigating the newly discovered hormone irisin, in connection with brown-fat, beige-fat activation. Her research also includes outreach to underserved communities for education and health promotion interventions to foster obesity prevention, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and overall healthier lifestyle. On the molecular level, Dr. Ilich-Ernst investigates nutritional influences on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes lineages and cross-talk with myocytes.
We showed previously that consumption of low-fat dairy foods (4-5 servings/day), resulted in better body composition (lean and fat tissue) outcomes compared to calcium (Ca) supplement or control group in postmenopausal women after a 6-month weight loss intervention. Here, we report the effect of dairy foods and/or Ca supplementation on lipid profile and proinflammatory markers in the same population. A total of n=97 overweight/obese early-postmenopausal women completed the 6 months follow-up and had complete data-sets. They were divided into 3 groups: 1) Supplement (pills containing 630 mg Ca+400 IU of vitamin D/day); 2) Dairy (low-fat dairy consumption, 4-5 servings/day); and 3) Control (placebo pills). Each group included moderate energy restriction (~85% of energy needs). Glucose, insulin, lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL), as well as Apo A1, Apo B, and CRP were analyzed in fasting blood samples by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. There was improvement in each measured parameter, probably due to weight loss, except in glucose, HDL and Apo B which remained the same. Dairy group showed the highest % decrease in total cholesterol and LDL, 6.1% and 7.7%, respectively, compared to Supplement (3.2% and 3.4%) and Control (3.8% and 1.7%) groups. Additionally, Apo A decreased in Dairy group, while it increased in Supplement and Dairy groups. In conclusion, the intervention with low-fat dairy foods complemented with hypocaloric diet resulted in the best outcomes for lipid profile and highest reduction in Apo A. Increasing the low-fat dairy foods to 4-5 servings/day may be beneficial for metabolic profile in postmenopausal women during weight loss.
Suhair Abdalla Khalil Abdallah has completed her PhD in Clinical Nutrition from Ahfad University for Women, Sudan. She is currently a Clinical Dietitian at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. She has long experience of 18 years in clinical nutrition field.
Introduction: Protein energy malnutrition is common among end stage renal disease patients (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) with an estimated prevalence of 10-70% and it undoubtedly contributes to increased risks of morbidity and mortality. It is compounded by the fact that these patients loose large amounts of protein in the dialysate fluid and do not consistently take the recommended amounts of energy and protein for ESRD patients on HD. They are in need of individualized meal plans but they rarely consult a dietitian. Purpose: This was a prospective, clinical trial hospital based (intervention) study to evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention of adequate calorie and protein intake on malnutrition among HD patients. Methods: The study was conducted on HD patients attending Dr Salma Hemodialysis & Transplant Center outpatient clinic, Khartoum. 134 adult patients (males & females) were divided into a test group (n=77) and a control group (n=57). The test group after nutritional counseling consumed individualized diets for a period of 6 months that provided adequate amounts of energy and protein according to the recommendations of the National Kidney Foundation while the control group continued consuming their usual diets. Malnutrition status was determined by using subjective global assessment (SGA) tool (which used by health officials to score protein-energy nutrition status) at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The SGA scores of the study patients was similar at baseline in both groups, the majority 88.1% were severely malnourished (92.2 test and 82.5 control), 11.9% moderate malnourished (7.8% test and 17.5% control) and there were no well nourished score in both groups. After intervention the result showed significant differences in SGA scores between the two study groups (P=0.000); 46.8% of test group had well nourished scores (A) and still no participants from control group reached the well nourished score. 33.6% participants were moderately malnourished (B) (44.2% test and 19.3% control). The control group showed 80.7% as severely malnourished (C) and only 9.7% were severely malnourished from test group. Therefore the result after intervention shows highly significant differences in SGA score between the two groups during intervention period (P=0.000). Conclusion: The study concluded that nutritional intervention in the form of adequate calorie and protein intake was help in improving nutritional status and malnutrition among HD patients. Therefore, nutritional counseling by qualified dietitians should be mandatory in renal dialysis units as part of the medical therapy management to reduce the incidence of malnutrition among HD patients.