Day 2 :
University of Murcia, Spain
Time : 09:00-09:30
Gaspar Ros Berruezo is a Professor of Human Nutrition and Food Science (including Food Safety) at the University of Murcia (UM), serving the institution for more than 25 years. He has been a Post-Doctorate Fulbright Scholar in 1989-90 at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. He is a Project Leader of the VITALIS Centre for Research in Food Science, Human Nutrition and Health in the Mediterranean area. His research interests are in functional foods and ingredients, the metabolism to nutritional functionality (including bioavailability and omics) for normal growth and development on infants and to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases or obesity. He has recently been elected as Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Food Science and Technology of UM.rnrn
Obesity as well as other chronic diseases or other non-communicable diseases (NCD) are of multifactorial nature and typically begins during childhood and adolescence. Its etiology is the result of a complex interaction between genetics and the environment, where unbalanced diets play a very important role, even, during lactation and childhood. In the last 10 to 15 years there have been carried out several international projects to validate the hypothesis that health of the adult is base on the early life nutrition. However there is a big debate about how diet determines health status later and how it is related to macro or micronutrients, microbioma or genome. The objective of the keynote is to overview and present data that support the idea that some specific macronutrients such as protein can modulate gens from tissues to produce a bigger demand of energy intake or how tissues are affected to trigger adverse metabolic and health consequences. Other important factor is how to correlate the intake of baby food with the highest fat and protein percentage that produces a down-regulation of more or less number of genes. Such an effect should be further studied in human infants to learn more about the composition of beikost on early programming. Finally, the debate about infant development and how influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring with the suggestion that an early nutrition programming may have an epigenetic component such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications that may provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Finally, since the overweight and obesity has increased to unexpected levels and if this changed have already taken place, the question is how we can change the already settled situation. Is there any possibility of rolling back?rn
Claudio Adrian Bernal
Keynote: Metabolic implications of trans-fatty acids from ruminant and industrial source on Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk: Experimental and observational evidence
Time : 09:30-10:00
Claudio Adrian Bernal has completed his PhD from University of Litoral, Argentina and his Postdoctoral studies from University of Pittsburgh, USA. He is currently the Head of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Litoral. He has published more than 40 manuscripts, directed national and international research projects and received several Scientific Awards in the field of nutrition. He was the President of Argentine Chapter of the Latino American Society of Nutrition. His research focuses on the impact of dietary fats and functional compounds on experimental animals. In addition he is working in food analysis, infant formulas and functional foods.
High intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been related with several adverse metabolic effects. Clinical and epidemiological findings have supported that high intake of Industrial TFA (I-TFA) has a negative impact on the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Human and animal studies have shown that dietary TFA are highly incorporated in liver, adipose tissue, platelets, aorta and nearly all tissues. Most likely, through this incorporation, I-TFA lead to numerous alterations such as inhibition of n-3 and n-6 PUFA biosynthesis, changes in eicosanoids production and modifications of composition and biological properties of membranes. Additionally, I-TFA raise plasma LDL-Cholesterol, Lp(a) and triacylglycerol levels, lower HDL-Cholesterol concentrations and increase systemic markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Studies with Ruminant TFA (R-TFA) are scarce and have yielded conflicting results, however most epidemiological studies demonstrated no positive correlation between R-TFA and CVD. In a controlled nutritional study a very high intake of R-TFA showed a negative impact on serum lipoproteins but this effect was not observed at achievable intakes of these natural isomers. Results from our laboratory and others clearly showed that trans-vaccenic acid (TVA, the main R-TFA) has a higher metabolization rate compared to elaidic acid and, in addition, it is converted to Rumenic Acid (RA: c9,t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid). Since RA might improve the lipid and glucose metabolism and reduce the inflammatory response, it is recognized as a functional FA. In conclusion, I-TFA clearly have a negative impact on CVD, whereas achievable consumption of R-TFA has not. However, the specific impact of R-TFA requires further investigation to establish the effects on CHD risk and potential health benefits.
- Track 05: Paediatric Nutrition
Track 06: Nutrient in Cancer & Chronic diseases
Track 07: Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation
Location: Olimpica 3 & 4
Gaspar Ros Berruezo
University of Murcia, Spain
Elena T Carbone
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Istituto Profilattico e Farmaceutico Candioli & C. S.p.A., Italy
Title: Effectiveness of a feed supplement to control hyperphosphatemia and metabolic acidosis in advanced stages of feline Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Time : 10:20-10:40
Natascia Bruni has completed her PhD from University of Turin and Postdoctoral studies from high synthesis school of Gargnano, Italy. She is the Director of Research and Development in Candioli Pharma Organization. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals.
Introduction: When diet alone is not sufficient it is necessary to supplement the diet of CKD cats with specific substances. These are phosphate binders and alkalinizing agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a feed supplement containing a mix of substances to bind the phosphate and correct the metabolic acidosis in cats with CKD (IRIS, International Renal Interest Society, stage 3 and 4). Material & Methods: 10 cats (median BW 4 (3, 6) Kg, BCS 3/5(2, 4), 11 (9, 12) years) fed with a balanced renal diet were involved in the study. Treatment consisted in oral administration of the product (Renal, Candioli Pharma) containing calcium carbonate, calcium lactate gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and chitosan given for 60 days. The animals were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at 15, 30, 60 days (T0, T15, T30, T60) for: BW, BCS, food intake, blood pressure and for routinely hematochemical, biochemical and urinary parameters. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS software. After checking normality data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). Letters show differences among rows (P<0.05). Results & Discussion: Statistically significant reduction of serum phosphorus concentration was obtained through the study (reduction of 59% at T60 vs. T0). Also a statistically significant increase of bicarbonate was seen (7% from T0 to T60). At T60 was also recorded an increase of ionized calcium level, which however was in normal range. It was also detected a statistically significant difference for the albumin/globulin ratio between day 15 and day 60. Conclusion: Even if many studies on phosphate binders are conducted on healthy animals it is important to evaluate their efficacy also in cats with CKD. In fact the addition of a phosphorus binder may reduce food intake in azotemic cats but that effect was not seen in the present study. The feed supplement was effective to reduce blood phosphate levels and to increase blood bicarbonate levels thus improving cats’ clinical conditions for the duration of the study.
Texas Woman’s University, USA
Time : 10:40-11:00
Carolyn E Moore has completed her PhD and Postdoctoral studies from the University of California at Los Angeles. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Woman’s University in Houston and a Registered Dietitian. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has focused research efforts in the area of vitamin D and chronic disease.
Nutrient deficiencies are common following bariatric surgery. Vitamin D deficiency occurs following 50-80% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures and is common with sleeve gastrectomy. Moreover, low circulating levels of vitamin D are independently associated with increased body mass index and fat mass in adults. Gastric restriction reduces food intake and increases the risk of B vitamin deficiencies following RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. The B complex vitamins are water soluble and therefore not stored in the body to a large extent which necessitates a continuous supply. Neurological complications associated with vitamin B12, thiamine and folate deficiencies have been estimated to occur in up to 16% of bariatric surgery cases resulting in compromised neurological function presenting within weeks to months following bariatric surgery. Few prospective studies have evaluated the appropriate supplementation dosages following bariatric surgery. This study assessed the response to 3 months supplementation of vitamin D and B complex vitamins in women following sleeve gastrectomy. Daily supplementation with 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,500 mg calcium significantly increased 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations and vitamin D deficiency decreased from 61% at baseline to 26% at 3 months (p<0.005). However, several women remained vitamin D deficient and more aggressive supplementation may be indicated. B vitamin supplementation resulted in a 48% increase of vitamin B12, modest increase of serum folate and no reduction of thiamine concentrations. Thus, nutritional screening and appropriate dietary supplementation to prevent nutrient deficiencies and improve long term outcomes following bariatric surgery is warranted.
University of Murcia, Spain
Title: The omic approach to evaluate the infant foods innovation (formulas and beikost) and their challenges for optimal baby health
Time : 11:00-11:20
Gaspar Ros Berruezo is a Professor of Human Nutrition and Food Science (including Food Safety) at the University of Murcia (UM), serving this Institution for more than 25 years. He has been Post-Doc Fulbright Scholar from 1989-90 at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. He is a Project Leader of the VITALIS Centre for Research in Food Science, Human Nutrition and Health in the Mediterranean area, under construction. His research interest is to functional foods and ingredients, the metabolism to nutritional functionality (including bioavailability and omics) for normal growth and development on infants and to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases or obesity.
For babies, breast milk is the adequate food because it provides the energy and nutrients needs to be healthy. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed or after the period of lactation. Infants usually combines infant formulas and start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of age and introduce one new food at a time to identify any foods that cause allergies. With the new generation of complementary infant food and the better acknowledge of the mature mother’s milk (MMM) composition macronutrients as well as micronutrients have been reformulated at infant formulas. Nowadays challenges are mainly in those micronutrients present in MMM that are difficult to find in the amount and from needed for the baby during the growth period. Two of them are human lactoferrin (hLf) and polyamines. Lactoferrin, is a glycoprotein that belongs to transferrin family and specific polyamines (PAs) including spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD) and putrescine (PUT) have been identified in the breast milk of mammalian species. Both are in higher concentration in MMM and low in infant formulas. Due to their nature the play key roles in the ability to enhance Fe bioavailability in the case of hLf and are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation involved in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in the case of PAs, shearing common aspects related to immunity or microbiota regulation. Another important aspect if the baby feeding after lactation where beikost and specially homogenized baby food (MBF) provide the nutrient balance for normal growth and the early programming theory proposes that affect metabolic patters that may manifest them later in life. In this case the increasing prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) during infancy and childhood is a reality in some European countries that maybe influenced by the nutrition during infanthood. In this research will present several in vitro and in vivo studies facing the study of the solubility, bioavailability and metabolic pattern of hLf and PAson the immunity and microbiota, as well as the implication of macronutrients balance of HBF on the gene expression involved in the development of obesity especially in epididymal fat tissue.
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Title: Examining health literacy and its association with maternal child health and nutrition outcomes: Results of a scoping review
Time : 11:20-11:40
Elena T Carbone is a Health Education/Nutrition Communications Researcher. Her mixed methods work with communities integrates behavioral interventions to promote health and prevent complications related to obesity, diabetes and cancer. She is an Associate Professor/Graduate Program Director of Nutrition and Founding Director of the Community Engaged Research Program at UMass Amherst. She is a Registered Dietitian and an Editorial Board Member of two journals. She has made over 100 presentations nationally/internationally and authored over 30 peer reviewed publications. She has received multiple awards for her contributions to the field of nutrition, most recently from Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Ensuring optimal outcomes for women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period requires an understanding that multiple complex issues interact to influence a woman’s capacity to use health information and services. Health literacy is recognized as an important determinant of public health. In fact, the WHO recommends promoting health literacy of parents in both developed and low resource countries as a global strategy to reduce the burdens of non communicable disease with origins in early development and attendant disparities. Simply providing information is ineffective to increase the capacity of mothers in poverty to maintain or enhance their health and that of their child. Our scoping review is the first step in a multi step research plan and addresses the following research question: What is known from the existing literature about how maternal health literacy is associated with maternal and child health outcomes throughout the prenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods? The focus of this presentation will be on diet related health outcomes. This is one of several countries specific literature reviews currently underway; together, they will inform the design of a multi country study to gain a deeper understanding of the factors felt by women to empower them to obtain and use information and services for personal and child health. Ultimately, our goal is to identify one or more universal strategies to promote maternal health literacy among mothers in poverty and methods to adapt the strategies to local cultures and systems.
University of Minho, Portugal
Title: Should the diet of colon cancer patients be personalized based on gene mutation profiles of tumor cells
Time : 11:40-12:00
Cristina Pereira-Wilson has completed her PhD from the University of Tondheim, Norway and is currently a Professor at the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. Her scientific interests are in the areas of Physiology, Biochemistry, Nutrition and Pharmacology. She has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals.
Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer related deaths and is known to be strongly associated with diet. Both carcinogenic and chemopreventive effects of diet have been described. In colon cancer different molecular profiles determine the carcinogenic progression, malignancy and ultimately the response to radio and chemotherapy. Mutations in particular genes such as KRAS, BRAF and P53 are major players in the abnormal proliferation of cancer cells and constitute molecular targets for cancer therapy. Recent evidence shows that colon cancer cells with different mutation profiles respond differently to compounds present in traditional foods and other plant sources that may even potentiate the effects of therapeutic drugs. Activating mutations in the MAP Kinase pathway (KRAS or BRAF) or of the PI3K pathway both contribute to increased cell proliferation. However, anticancer responses are observed for rosmarinic acid in KRAS mutated cells whereas only cells with PI3K activation respond to ursolic acid, both compounds present aromatic herbs and other food plants. Importantly, compounds present in the diet may also potentiate the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-FU, quercetin increasing p53 dependent cell death in response to 5FU and ursolic acid increasing p53 independent cell death. The implication is that not all tumors are sensitive to the same dietary constituents and that personalizing the diet according to the molecular profile of the patient’s tumor may be desirable to maximize the beneficial effects of diet.
Liverpool John Moores University, UK
Time : 12:00-12:20
Julie Abayomi has previously worked as NHS Dietitian for 20 years, specializing in Women’s Health at Liverpool Women’s Hospital for twelve years. She has completed her PhD at Liverpool John Moores University, UK in 2010. She is currently the Program Leader of the BSc Nutrition program at Liverpool John Moores University. She has published more than 20 papers in health related journals and she is a Member of the British Dietetic Association and the UK Nutrition Society.
Currently there are no UK guidelines regarding safe weight gain in pregnancy. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) and excessive weight gain in pregnancy are associated with serious health risks to both mother and baby including gestational diabetes, macrosomia, pre-eclampsia, caesarean section and post operative complications. In the absence of clear UK guidance, USA recommendations are often referred to which suggest that women with a pre-pregnancy BMI>29.9 kg/m2 should limit weight gain to 5-9 kg2. The aim of this study was to explore dietary intake and patterns of gestational weight gain in obese pregnancies in comparison to USA recommendations. Women with BMI>29.9 kg/m2 were recruited from antenatal clinic at booking-in appointments and agreed to being weighed and to complete a food diary at each trimester of pregnancy. Weight change was calculated and then compared with categorized pregnancy weight gain (<0 kg, 0-5 kg, 5-9 kg and >9kg). Dietary intake was calculated using micro diet and compared to UK dietary reference values. Between June 2009 and June 2010, 824 women consented to participate and weight data were collected for 756 women. Results suggest that a higher booking BMI was negatively associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) (β -0.25, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.19, p<0.001). Furthermore, despite adequate energy intakes, quality of diet was poor and deteriorated as pregnancy progressed. This study suggests that a focus on healthy eating and improving quality of diet may be more beneficial than a focus on energy intake and weight gain in obese pregnancies. A review of ante natal care provision for overweight pregnancies is urgently needed.
King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, KSA
Title: Effect of nutritional counseling in the form of individualized meal plan on serum albumin level among hemodialysis patients
Time : 13:10-13:30
Suhair Abdalla Khalil Abdallah has completed her PhD in Clinical Nutrition from Ahfad University for Women, Sudan. She is a Clinical Dietitian at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. She has long experience of 18 years in clinical nutrition field.
Introduction: Serum albumin is the most commonly used malnutrition marker in clinical practice as hypoalbuminemia is considered to be a malnutrition risk among the patients on hemodialysis and a strong predictor of death. Low serum albumin levels are due to low intakes of energy and protein or insufficient energy intake resulting in poor protein utilization. Purpose: This was a prospective, clinical trial hospital based (intervention) study to evaluate the effect of nutritional counseling in the form of individualized meal plan on serum albumin level among hemodialysis patients. Methods: The study was conducted on maintenance hemodialysis patients attending Dr Salma Hemodialysis & Transplant Center outpatient clinic, Khartoum. 134 adult patients (males & females) were divided into a test group (n=77) and a control group (n=57). The test group after nutritional counseling consumed individualized diets for a period of 6 months that provided adequate amounts of energy and protein according to the recommendations of the National Kidney Foundation while the control group continued consuming their usual diets. Serum albumin was determined at baseline and every 2 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Serum albumin increased gradually from 3.14 g/dl at baseline to 4.32 g/dl at 6 months with test group. The study shows big differences in increasing of serum albumin level during the study with intervention group compared with control. The mean test group was (3.1, 3.3, 3.9 and 4.3) and the mean of control group was (3.2, 3.16, 3.19 and 3.84) in baseline, 2-4-6 months respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that effective nutritional counseling rendered to maintenance hemodialysis patients in the form of individualized meal plans that provided adequate energy and protein was effective in the control and improvement of serum albumin level among these patients. Therefore, nutritional counseling by qualified dietitians should be mandatory in renal units as part of the medical therapy management to reduce the incidence of hypoalbminemia among hemodialysis patients.
Christian Medical College & Hospital, India
Title: The risk of developing eating disorders in young adults with and without type-1 diabetes mellitus in southern India
Time : 13:30-13:50
Mini Joseph is an Assistant Professor in Food & Nutrition at Government College for Women, Trivandrum, Kerala. She is presently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism at Christian Medical College, India. She is the recipient of Young Scientist Award from the Nutrition Society of India in 2012. Her interests are in community nutrition, energy expenditure research, sports nutrition and Diabetes.
Introduction: Type-1 diabetes mellitus patients are at a risk for developing eating disorders because of their intense diet consciousness which is imbibed at an early age. The main objectives of this study were to screen for the risk of developing of eating disorders amongst young adults with and without type-1 diabetes mellitus and study its associations with metabolic control in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study with cases and gender-age matched controls was conducted on young adult type-1 diabetes mellitus patients (n=113) who were managed at the Young Adults Diabetes Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Vellore, India. They were screened using the Eating Attitude Test-26 questionnaire. Results & Discussion: With type-1 diabetes patients had a higher risk for developing eating disorders when compared to their counterparts without diabetes (p=0.000; 95% CI=8.7, 170.7, Odds Risk Ratio=38.5). The only factor associated with the risk of developing eating disorder was the duration of the disease. There was no significant difference in risks of developing eating disorder between the male and female subjects. Conclusion: Nutritionists and medical personnel should maintain a high index of suspicion when managing type-1 diabetes mellitus patients. Timely intervention with the help of mental health professional during routine hospital visits will enable better glycemic control and prevent diabetes related complications.
International Medical University School of Health Sciences, Malaysia
Title: Advancing the role of tocotrienols in breast cancer: Unveiling novel molecular mechanism of tocotrienols using an in vitro model
Time : 13:50-14:10
Premdass Ramdas is a full time Lecturer at the International Medical University, Malaysia. His research interests involve: Breast cancer, vitamin E, genomics, quantitative proteomics and cancer informatics. He is also actively involved in technology enhanced learning activities at his university. His career aim is to find a niche in nutrition research field and to evolve as a professional educationist.
For many years now, scientists have understood that the onset of breast cancer is a gradual and stepwise process. Chemoprevention researches in recent days are focused on finding substances or components of natural sources that can prevent or inhibit carcinogenesis. Targeted cancer therapies using natural bioactive compounds in combination with chemoprevention drugs are also used to target specific characteristics of cancer cells, such as a gene or protein that allows the cancer cells to grow in a rapid or abnormal way. Therefore, chemoprevention of breast cancer, the attempt to use natural and synthetic compounds to intervene in the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis before invasion begins, is undertaken as a measure to reduce breast cancer risk for women at high risk. A number of bioactive dietary components are of particular interest in the field of breast cancer. One such compound known as the sub-group of Vitamin E family, the tocotrienols display anticancer properties and may play a role in cancer prevention. To date, there are many studies, which show that tocotrienols can inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects of four isoforms of tocotrienols on the human breast cancer cells appear to be different. The γ and δ-to
cotrienols have been shown to have a more potent inhibitory effect on cell growth compared to α and β-tocotrienols. In this study, the effect of tocotrienol isomers (γ and δ) were used to postulate the mechanism of action of these compounds using an in vitro model. The integration of omics methodologies provided insights into functions and the mechanisms of tocotrienols action in breast cancer cellular and molecular environment.
- Young Researchers Forum
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Title: FuelUp&Go!: Effectiveness of a food literacy program for low income adolescents to improve knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and physical activities
Time : 14:10-14:25
Catherine Wickham is a Doctoral Candidate and Research Assistant in the Nutrition Department at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA. Her research focuses on the intersection of technology, communication and nutrition education. She is a Registered Dietitian and obtained a MS in Nutrition from the University of Saint Joseph. She has taught courses in foodservice management, food preparation and food safety and has served as a Teaching Assistant for Dr. Elena Carbone at the Gustolab Institute, Rome, Italy. She has presented lectures on mhealth, the use of technology in diet assessment and obesity and has an extensive background in food service management.
One in three adolescents in the US is overweight or obese. This is a serious public health concern as these adolescents are experiencing serious health conditions once only seen in adults. Adolescents are at a unique life style stage and are beginning to develop transitional decision making skills. Innovative food literacy programs that address decision making, promote the use of community based participatory methods and use engaging technology are needed. Low income, ethnically diverse adolescents 12-16 years old from Springfield, MA were recruited to participate in the FuelUp&Go! pilot. The program included focus groups and six in-person sessions. In addition, participants used a fitness tracker and app, received weekly text messages and visited the programs website. Twenty one participants attended the sessions and matched pre/post survey data were collected from nine. Overall, food related knowledge was low but increased slightly at post test (from 3.00 to 3.56 points out of 9 points). Attitudes toward fruits and water did not improve; however, attitudes toward vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and physical activities trended positive. Participants’ reported small increases in the number of days they engaged in physical activity. Overall, most program components were well received with a mean of 4.0 or greater (1=didn’t like at all, 5=really liked a lot) including wearing a tracker, syncing the tracker, visiting the program website, receiving weekly tips and learning about food related topics. Phase two of this project will begin in January of 2016. Insight gained from the pilot will help inform the implementation of program components for phase two.
University of the West of Scotland, UK
Title: The Role of Multivitamins in Paediatric HIV Management In Nigeria: A Randomized Controlled Study
Time : 14:25-14:40
Regina Esiovwa Ahumareze is an experienced Pharmacist with a Distinction in Drug Discovery (MSc) from the School of Pharmacy, University of London. She worked for several years as the Superintendent Pharmacist at a reputable Nutraceutical company in Nigeria and she is particularly interested in the role of Nutraceuticals in disease prevention. Regina Esiovwa Ahumareze is the recipient of many awards including the Niger Delta Development Scholarship Award, the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship Award and the Delta State Scholarship Award. She is currently a PhD Researcher at the University of the West of Scotland.
Micronutrient deficiencies in people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been reported. Multivitamins can be used to address micronutrient deficiencies, however the benefits of multivitamins on health outcomes of PLHIV remain debateable. While some studies have reported the benefits of multivitamins in PLHIV, other studies have reported non-significant differences in outcomes of interest in control and multivitamin groups. With obvious differences in strength and composition of multivitamins used in the different studies, it is possible that the intervention (multivitamins) used for some of these studies may not have been dosed high enough to meet the level of micronutrient deficiencies in study participants resulting in non-significant results. It is possible that higher strength multivitamins may better meet existing micronutrient deficiencies resulting in better health outcomes in PLHIV. Hence we are currently conducting a double blind randomized controlled study in Lagos, Nigeria to compare three multivitamins. • Multivitamin A: Contains 7 micronutrients at recommended daily allowance (RDA) • Multivitamin B: Contains 22 micronutrients at RDA • Multivitamin C:Contains 22 micronutrients at 3times the RDA The aim of this six months study is to determine if any of the three multivitamins will produce better health outcomes in study participants. Participants are HIV positive children aged 5 – 12 years. Primary outcome is changes in CD4 count, and secondary outcomes are changes in serum selenium and zinc levels. Baseline and midpoint samples have been collected and are being analysed. Final samples will be collected from December 2015 – January 2016. Results of this study will be presented at the conference.
University of Westminster, UK
Title: The tailored functional recipe approach: Linking local resources with global science to create sustainable school nutrition intervention in Ghana
Time : 14:40-14:55
Jolene Mateko Azagba-Nyako is currently a PhD candidate in Department of Human and Health Sciences, University of Westminster, UK with a background in Dietetics, Food Science and Technology. Her areas of speciality pertain to the nutrition in emergency, nutrition policy drafting (optimization, implementation and surveillance), nutrition interventions (infant-maternal nutrition interventions) and the development of tailored food product. She has over 10 years experience in the dietetics, nutrition and food technology sector (Ghana/UK) and is currently part of Home Grown School Feeding Project Team at the Noguchi Memorial Institute Medical for Medical Research, Ghana. She is currently a Reviewer for Journal of Functional Foods in Health and Disease.
School feeding interventions like many other nutrition interventions in low-income economies are usually designed according to donor interest. Such interventions often do not reflect the indigenous dietary preference and patterns of target populations; failure to consider such key determinants of food consumption greatly affects the sustainability and effectiveness of donor driven interventions. This study is part of the tailored functional food recipe concept that seeks to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions by employing indigenous knowledge of food composition and processing to improve bioavailability of micronutrients in local available foods without compromising palatability. The aim of this study was to develop model meals (SC meals) for the Ghana School Feeding Program by employing local agricultural produce as food-to-food fortification. Each meal was developed using dietary intake data from local mothers and local agricultural production data. Formulations were based on indigenous recipes using nutrition data from FAO West-African-Food-Composition-Table and optimized to contain at least 40% DRI of protein for school children. AOAC (2009) methods were used to analyze the nutritional content of the SC meals and two sets of sensory tests (15 member trained panel and 50 untrained panel) were performed to determine acceptability. SC meals had mean protein content of 49.18 g per 100 g and overall sensory acceptability scores of 7 7.71±0.70. In an18-week nutrition intervention with the SC meals, anemia prevalence decreased by 7.32±1.59% in the intervention group compared to the control groups. These findings illustrate that the application science to indigenous nutrition knowledge could be a plausible tool in enhancing the nutritional sensitivity of school feeding, building local capacity as well as promoting food sovereignty.
Charles Sturt University, Australia
Time : 14:55-15:10
Dr. Syed Haris Omar has more than 4 years’ teaching with research experience in pharmacology and is the author of over 16 peer-reviewed scientific publications, including research, reviews, book chapters and conference papers. Furthermore, he has been serving as an editorial board member of repute. He has completed his PhD from the School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Australia. His research interest lies in the area of pharmacology, neuropharmacology, and nutrition related neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, he is member of various scientific society including, The Australian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologist (ASCEPT), Australian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB), American Chemical Society (ACS), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE), and European Brain and Behaviour Society (EBBS).
Neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can quite often be due to a deficiency or abnormality in the diet. AD is a huge global burden, affecting 44 million people worldwide and that this will grow to more than 100 million cases by 2050. There are 342,000 Australians living with dementia and expected to soar to almost 900,000 by 2050. Currently, no treatment and cure for AD, while the available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication delay the condition's development. Due to the severity in side effect and narrow therapeutic effect, recent studies suggested dietary recommendation for AD including the minimize intake of saturated fats and trans fats, and increase the intake of vegetables, legumes, fruits, and whole grains. Olive (Olea europaea) fruit, leaves and extra virgin oil are a good sources of unsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds, offering a number of health beneficial activities mainly attributed to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity. Studies have shown that people who closely follow a Mediterranean diet (contains olive) are less likely to experience cognitive decline. The evidence continues to climb showing olive oil, particularly the phenolic compounds have multiple benefits for the aging brain. Despite the huge and increasing amount of the in vitro studies trying to unravel the mechanisms of action of biophenols, bioavailability, biotransformation, synergism, and finally the mechanisms of antioxidant activity are still unanswered. The neuroprotective effects of these olive biophenols in the various in vitro and preclinical models of AD are highlighted.
University of Campinas, Brazil
Title: Effects of protein restriction on body parameters and bone metabolism in 17β-estradiol treated ovariectomized female Wistar rats
Time : 15:30-15:45
Victoria Padula de Quadros has completed her completed Master of Sciences from University of Campinas, Brazil and she is currently involved in a Masters program in Human Nutrition at the Associazione Biologi Ambientalisti Pugliesi (ABAP), Italy.
The adequate ingestion of proteins is determinant to the acquisition and maintenance of bone and muscular mass, especially in post-menopausal women. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of a low protein diet on the metabolism of sexual hormone deficient subjects undergoing or not an estradiol hormone reposition therapy (HRT). Adult female Wistar rats were distributed into control group, ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol treated ovariectomized groups fed with control or an isocaloric low protein diet (6,6% protein). Body weight gain, metabolism rate and total body composition were assessed as well as serum hormone content. The results showed the protein deficiency caused alterations in growth, diminishing the body weight, increasing the final body fat percentage, reducing the muscle and bone mass and also the bone density. The metabolic rate was reduced in low protein groups compared to controls and the levels of growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were diminished. In addition, the low protein diet had a diabetogenic effect, increasing the glycaemia and decreasing the insulin levels. Although the low protein ovariectomized group was more affected compared to the controls, the combination with HRT showed an improvement on minimizing the damaging effect of the low protein diet compared to the control groups. We concluded that protein restriction has adverse effects on metabolism, leading to a worse condition of the menopause state and that HRT could improve these affected points. Thus, HRT can be effective to improve the status of post-menopausal women but should be associated with a healthy nutritional pattern.
Mukogawa Women’s University, Japan
Title: Sum of serum n-3 fatty acid value might be correlated with residual living days in older adult patients with gastro-intestinal cancer
Time : 15:45-16:00
Aims: To examine our working hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory factors, mainly n-3 fatty acids (FA) might affect survival days of patients with GI cancers. Methods: All consecutive patients with GI cancers admitted between December 2012 and September 2015, for their treatment were enrolled as the subject of the present study. This was retrospective chart-review in a single institute. Patients with liver (AST, ALT, T-Bil>1.5 upper limit of normal range) or renal (s-creatinine>1.5 upper limit of normal range) dysfunction was excluded. The following data were collected: Demographics-sex, age, site and stage of cancer, body weight (BW) measured at the first before treatment (T1) and/or the last before death (T2); blood tests drawn at T1, T2 to measure FA profiles; and correlation between FA profiles and residual living days (RLDs) were analyzed. Results: 31 patients were enrolled. Demographics at T1(T2) male/female=19(15)/12(8), age 73.0(75.6), site of cancer-stomach/colon/Liver/bile tract/pancreas=3(2)/7(6)/6(4)/10(6)/5(5), Among all FA profiles analyzed, sum of serum n-3 FA value showed significant invert correlation with RLDs (p<0.05), although each FA involved in n-3, such as alpha linolenic acid, EPA and DHA did not show any relationship. Conclusion: Sum of serum n-3 FA values might show invert correlation with survival days in patients with GI and hepato-biliary-pancreatic cancers. To our knowledge, this observation is the first report although it is not clarified whether this correlation is causality or association.
University of Murcia, Spain
Time : 16:00-16:15
Teresa has a degree in Veterinary and made a Master of Nutrition, Technology and Food Safety. Two years ago she obtained an official pre-doctoral fellowship of the Education Ministry of the Spain government and currently she is a PhD student in the official doctoral program in Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science at the University of Murcia under supervision of Dr. Gaspar Ros Berruezo, Dr. Carmen Frontela Saseta and Dr. Rubén López Nicolás.
The mechanisms involved in the regulation of food intake are, complex and imply different mechanisms. In this abstract, we have focused on the role of gut microbiota as a contributor to the regulation of energy homeostasis and energy intake. Changes in bacterial composition have been seen in both obese animals and humans, with reductions in Bacteroidetes and concurrent increases in Firmicutes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of whey protein on the human gut microbiota of three obese donors and three normo-weight donors. The prebiotic potential of these substrates were assessed through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following of a faecal batch cultures fermentations (mimicking a colonic fermentation) for 48 hours. Along fermentation pH and gas production were measured, as well as changes of microbiota. Total bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes and E. coli were quantified using RT-PCR. Results indicated a pH decreased in all samples, because of the metabolites of bacteria (shorts chain fatty acids among others). In relation with gas production values were higher in normo-weigth donors than obese. There was significatly differences in bacterial species respect donors as well as total bacterial and substrates. A tendency was also mostly observed to increased bifidobacteria and total bacteria in lean and obese donors, but Lactobacillus spp. was higher in obese than in lean subjects. In general, there was an increase of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacterium. As conclusion, whey protein could have a role, not only lowering the caloric value and increasing satiety, but also modulating the gut microbiota in a healthy manner.
University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy
Title: Moringa Oleifera Lam, aqueous extract: Different effects on proliferation, apoptosis and immunomodulatory activity in lympho-monocytoid tumor cells and PBMCs from healthy donors
Time : 16:15-16:30
Marina Potesta is currently a PhD student in Immunology and Applied biotechnology at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. She has contributed to several research projects concerning studies on multiparametric techniques of cellular analysis for the evaluation of cytotoxic antitumoral and antiviral effect and immunological modification of vegetal extract during the treatment in vitro, especially studying the mechanism of apoptosis in lymphoid cell, hepatic cancer cells and HIV infected cells. She has published 7 scientific papers in national and international journals and 11 extracts from national and international scientific meetings document her experience.
The Moringa oleifera Lam (MO) is one of the widely distributed species in the family Moringaceae used in African traditional medicine. Different study shown anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulatory and pro-apoptotic activities of MO leaf extract. The MO pro-apoptotic and immune-modulatory effect could be attributed to immunogenic cell death (ICD) signal with release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and immune response stimulation. Considering the limited data available regarding MO mature seeds we have evaluated in tumor cells and PBMCs from healthy donor (HD PBMCs), the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of different MO aqueous extracts. We investigated the possible role of MO mature seeds extract treatment in the ICD associated DAMPs production and in CD4+ T cells activation and differentiation. Our results demonstrate an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect mediated by MO mature seeds aqueous extract on tumor cells but not HD PBMCs. In particular MO induced apoptosis in human cancer cell lines resulted associated to BCL2 down-modulation and HMGB1, HSP70 release. The MO treatment determines a different effect on activation (CD69, CD25) and differentiation (CD45RA, CCR7) of PBMCs respect to Jurkat cell line. Moreover we observe in PBMCs treated with a chemotherapeutic (cyclophosphamide) an immune restore of CD3+CD4+ subtype after MO treatment. In conclusion the MO mature seeds aqueous extract is able to regulate the proliferation, the apoptosis and immune response in a different way in healthy cells respect to cancer cells. The capacity of MO to inducer of ICD hallmarks highlighted the possibility use of MO mature seeds extract as adjuvant in traditional cancer therapy.