Day 3 :
- Track 08: Nutrition during Adolescence
Track 09: Nutrition, Health and Aging
Track 10: Nutrition and Psychology
Track 11: Food and Nutrition
Track 12: Nutrition Epidemiology
Track 13: Current Research in Nutrition and Dietetics
Location: Olimpica 3&4
Susan Edgar Helm
Pepperdine University, USA
Conxita Mestres Miralles
University Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain
University of Florence , Italy
Title: Recovery of Hunger (IH) and diabetes regression after energy intake suspension up to loss of 20% body weight
Time : 10:00-10:20
Mario Ciampolini is a retired professor from Università di Firenze, Dept Pediatrics, directed the Gastroenterology Research Unit, a third level referral center in the department of Pediatrics of the University of Florence (Meyer hospital) for 40 years. He worked at the Cornell University for a joined research with the University of Florence on energy expenditure in children. Three students came from Amsterdam Medical Center to learn “Recognizing Hunger” he made the first diagnoses of celiac disease in Tuscany and published 130 scientific articles, about 40 in international Press.
Background: Obesity, diabetes, asthma, autism, birth defects, dyslexia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia have increased in children in the last half century. These increases may depend on the widespread, well known error in energy balance: the unremitting addition of fat at any meal for an error in the formation of the will (decision) to eat. The decision arises as conditioned before energy exhaustion of the energy available from previous meals. After meal suspension for up to 48 hours, all healthy people develop hunger sensations (Initial hunger, IH) that are not conditioned. Objective: Diabetic people are different in this: they do not develop any hunger sensation after meal cessation. Methods: We have reported the achievement of 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL BG and hunger sensations before daily meals in healthy children and adults after training the recognition of Initial Hunger (IH) to recover from functional disorders of the bowel, to recover body weight decrease and recover insulin sensitivity. Healthy subjects recognized IH from conditioned sensations by subjective comparison with the hunger that they initially experienced after meal suspension for less than 48 hours. Thereafter, subjects adapted energy intake to let arise IH three times a day (Initial Hunger Meal Pattern, IHMP). Preprandial BG measurements by autoanalyzer checked the recognition in the hospital lab before breakfast in 64 trained people that we compared with 72 controls. IHMP is a healthy, safe, normal, freely chosen homeostatic way of Nutrition that is found in a third of recruited children and adults at baseline, before any training. We tried to implement this training in two obese, diabetic adults out of two consecutive recruitments. The two subjects consumed meals devoid of fats and carbohydrates (VLD) for 6 to 12 months. Results: We found a loss of BG decline to 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL and loss of any hunger sensation after eating cessation in two diabetic subjects (out of two) who showed a BMI of 39 and 33 at recruitment. Both subjects lost 20% of their body weight and recovered 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL of BG and hunger sensations before two – three meals a day, i.e.: went off diabetes. Conclusion: Diabetes develops for inveterate conditioned intake (when previous energy intake has not been fully exhausted before meals), excessive fattening, excessive post-absorption emission of fatty acids from fatty tissues, permanent loss of BG decline to 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL and permanent loss of physiological signals of hunger. A healthy, non-diabetic life may be recovered by a painless loss of 20% body weight (No fats, no carbohydrates) and may be maintained by implementing IHMP at reappearance of hunger sensations. This means accurate energy intake planning instead of hunger endurance.
Susan Edgar Helm has completed her PhD in Physiological Chemistry at Univeristy of California Davis. She is the Director of the undergraduate and graduate Nutritional Science program at Pepperdine Unviersity, a private Liberal Arts Institution in Malibu, CA
Folate is critical for one carbon metabolism and has been implicated in mediation of Down syndrome symptoms. Both younger (<17 years) and older (>35 years) mothers are more prone to the experience of a Down syndrome infant. Red blood cell levels of folate of both mother and infant are low, implicating a dietary effect upon Down syndrome. Inconsistencies within the literature show dietary folate restriction to have preventive effects, whereas excess folate intake demonstrates adverse outcomes. MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism and low dietary intake of folic acid may restrict this enzyme in Down syndrome offspring and their mothers. The effect of dietary folic acid upon four other regulatory enzymes of protein methylation and transulfuration are involved. Ts65Dn mouse model has been successfully used to demonstrate a reversal of the cognitive behaviors of Down syndrome using the Beta2 adrenergic agonist, Formoterol. The Ts65Dn mouse was used to study dietary folic acid intervention and its’ effect upon the most likely enzyme of folate metabolism (MTHFR) and cognitive assessments that may have preventive effect on Down syndrome. The hypothesis was measurement of the response of Ts65Dn mice to 3 different dietary intake levels of folic acid, 0,2 and 7 ppm with changes in MTHFR activity and plasma 5-methyl-THF metabolic concentration. MTHFR activity and concentration of 5-methyl-THF assays were completed. The results of both assays demonstrate positive metabolic results from varying the levels of dietary folic acid in the diet consumed by the Down syndrome mouse. Differences between the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome and control mice were assessed by measurement of MTHFR activity and 5-CH3-THF concentrations in plasma. The study was conducted over a period of 6 months and with a total of 56 male mice provided the following dietary treatments (DS=Down Syndrome; C=Control; F=Folate; N=normal; L-low; H=High); n=9, DSNF; n=8, CNF; n=10 DSLF; n=10 CLF; n=9 DSHF; n=10 CHF. Statistical analysis revealed that the Control and Down syndrome mice were significantly different in terms of growth (p=0.003) and nesting behavior (p=0.000); with the Down syndrome having lower weight gain (M=1.9 g) and nesting behavior (M=2.35) compared to control weight gain (M=6.4 g) and nesting behavior (M=4.40). An analysis of the MTHFR activity has demonstrated no statistical difference between the control and Down syndrome mice in plasma MTHFR activity and yet, the Ts65Dn mice responded to the varying levels of dietary folic acid with changes in MTHFR activity and in plasma concentrations of 5-methyl THF. Dietary folic acid does impact the folate metabolism of the Ts65Dn mouse.
Tufts University, USA
Time : 11:00-11:20
Eileen Kennedy is the Dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and was the first Director of USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Kennedy holds an undergraduate degree from Hunter College, two master's degrees from Pennsylvania State University, and a Doctor of Science in Nutrition from Harvard's School of Public Health. Kennedy has long been involved in the academic arena of nutrition conducting research and teaching at Tufts, Columbia University, Cornell University and Johns Hopkins University. In 2008, Dr. Kennedy was named president of the "Smart Choices" board. “Smart Choices” is a front of label nutrition benchmarking system, a program whose criteria are based on government dietary guidelines and widely accepted nutritional standards.
There is a renewed interest in nutrition globally. The second International Conference on Nutrition in Nov. 2014 committed to eradicating malnutrition in all its forms. A key strategy for many countries is a combination of direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive, multi sector approaches. For both direct and indirect policies and programs to be successful, a key element is good governance. This paper will report the results of research from Ethiopia and Nepal on governance structures from national to sub national level. This research provides insights from key policy officials and stakeholders about how a range of policies and programs get translated from the design phase (on paper) to implementation (in practice).
Chikamori Hospital, Japan
Time : 11:20-11:40
In 1987 Yasushi Miyazawa graduated from Kitasato University School of Nutrition. He was an overseas trainee. in the year 1993 in Emory University Hospital, USA. In 2009 he became the Department head of Clinical Nutrition, CHIKAMORI Hospital Kochi Japan. He is also the board Director of Japanese society of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition and The Japan Heart failure Society. He is also a, Clinical Nutrition Professor of MIMASAKA University.
Stature and weight are important measures in assessing nutritional status. They are used to estimate basal energy expenditure, nutrient needs and to calculate BMI. For adults, accurate measurements of stature and weight depend upon who can be measured easily but many adults, especially the non-ambulatory and the very old are difficult or are unable to be measured. When stature and weight cannot be measured, they can be predicted. Prediction equations for stature and weight employ constituent body measurements that can be taken regardless of adult’s mobility status or health condition. The predictive accuracy of these equations is important so that the predicted values can be evaluated within known confidence limits and adjusted to meet nutritional recommendations. Accurate equations to predict stature and weight in adults have been developed. Equations developed from nationally representative samples have an increased utility among their general populations. Stature prediction equations have been developed separately for France, Taiwan, Italy, Mexico and Japan. In general, these population specific equations perform well but several have limited application because of the small samples used in development and the applicable age range. Also, there are no prediction equations for weight in any population outside of the U.S. The present study was undertaken to develop new accurate and more generalizable sex-specific stature and weight prediction equations using knee height and other body measurements to assist nutritional status assessments of the Japanese population. This study employed a large sample of 850 Japanese adults 21 years of age and older.
Conxita Mestres has completed hers Pharmacy Doctor Degree at the age of 28 years from the University of Barcelona. Has worked as Clinical Pharmacist between 1984-2006 in the Hospital Sant Rafael of Barcelona and as Quality Control and Patient Safety Coordinator, between 2006-2012 in the same Hospital. In parallel she has worked as assistant professor in the Pharmacy School of the University of Barcelona, between 1992 and 2008. Since 2012, she is Pharmacy Director in Grup Mutuam Barcelona (Group that works in Health Care in Long Term and Nursing Homes), and since 1992 she is assistant professor at School of Health Sciences Blanquerna. University Ramon Llull.Barcelona. In this institution she teaches in the Degrees of Dietetics, Physiotherapy and Pharmacy. He has published more than 70 papers in reputed journals and has published two books about pharmacology for Dietitians and for Physiotherapists.
Since the description of the serious interaction between IMAO drugs and tyramine containing foods in the 50s, food-drug interactions have won increasing importance and care. This is an important issue taking in account the increasing use of medications, especially in frail older people that are often polymedicated. Nowadays, we also include all the relations between nutritional status and drug treatment in this area. However we still facing some difficulties, such as: - Lack of information in new commercialized drugs, due to the fact that these interactions are not studied or evaluated in premarketing assays - Very few are described in patient’s handout - There are few databases and information sources, where health care professionals could find reliable and complete information. Moreover, not always health care givers takes fully in account or give the importance due to this kind of interaction. Therefore, I think that more work is needed in this area. For instance, to continue increasing the assays and works to detect unknown food-drug interactions and to have more knowledge about its importance in the patient outcome. And what is also very important is to increase the knowledge and awareness between physicians, pharmacists, dietitians and nurses, initiating them since the degree studies
Seoul National University, South Korea
Title: Household food insecurity is associated with lower dietary total antioxidant capacity of Korean adults
Time : 12:00-12:20
Hyojee Joung is a Professor of Public Health Nutrition at the Seoul National University. She has authored and co-authored more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed journals as well as several book chapters. She has served on dozens of scientific committees and advisory boards of academic associations in Korea and abroad.
Food insecurity has been reported to be associated with lower diet quality and lower intake of fruits and vegetables which might lead to decreased dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, little is known about the association between food insecurity and dietary TAC. This cross sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship of food insecurity and dietary TAC among 33,527 Korean adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Dietary TAC was estimated from the 24 hours dietary recall data using a TAC database of common Korean foods. Results showed that 5.8% of male adults and 6.7% of female adults were in food insecure households. Mean dietary TAC was significantly lower in food insecure groups (total 378.85 mg VCE/d; male 392.01 mg VCE/d; female 368.25 mg VCE/d) compared to food secure groups (total 588.55 mg VCE/d; male 575.81 mg VCE/d; female 601.11 mg VCE/d). The major contributing food groups to dietary TAC were fruits, vegetables and legumes and legume products in both groups but dietary TAC from each food group was significantly lower in food insecure group (170.42 mg VCE/d, 141.39 mg VCE/d and 41.83 mg VCE/d) compared with food secure group (315.24 mg VCE/d, 176.01 mg VCE/d and 50.01 mg VCE/d). This study demonstrated that food insecurity is associated with lower dietary TAC in a representative Korean population. Further research on the health effects of reduced dietary TAC among food insecure Korean adults is needed.
Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey
Title: How does high glucose affect to genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in fully differentiated human epithelial cell culture model
Time : 13:10-13:30
Sukru Gulec has received his Bachelor’s degree in Biology from Ankara University, Turkey. He has attended the Master of Science in Biotechnology, Ankara University College of Medicine and graduated in 2006. He has worked at Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) Department, University of Florida as a Biological Scientist. He was accepted as a PhD student and joined in nutritional science interdisciplinary program at FSHN Department, University of Florida in 2009. He has received his PhD from the University of Florida in 2013 and stayed in same department as Postdoctoral associate. He was hired as an Assistant Professor in Izmir Technical Institute in 2014.
Glucose is one of the nutritional factors that involves in developing of obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. The studies indicated that enterocyte cells on intestine might play a role in dietary glucose sensing during obesity. Obese people are consumed high amount of dietary glucose and enterocyte cells consequently are exposed to high glucose. Thus, we aimed to find relevant physiological pathways and genome-wide mRNA expression profiles that can be regulated by glucose in fully differentiated human intestinal epithelial (CaCo-2). The cells were maintained two different glucose levels (5.5 mM for control, 25 mM for high glucose) at least three passages. The cells were grown on transwell system for 21 days to mimic human intestine system. Transepithelial electrical resistances (TEER) were measured to control monolayer formation and polarization. RNA isolation was performed and whole genome mRNA expression profile was determined following gene ontology analysis to find affected molecular pathways. Compared to control relative glucose level was found high in basolateral site of CaCo-2 cells that were under high glucose condition without effecting TEER. GLUT2, SGLT1, GLUT5 mRNA levels were significantly reduced during elevated glucose levels which is consistent with literature. Significant fold change analysis showed that 351 genes up-regulated and 468 genes under high glucose condition. We found high glucose significantly leads changes of molecular pathways (down-regulated; insulin signaling, focal adhesion, inositol phosphate, fructose/mannose, glycolysis and up-regulated; ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, spliceosome, protein export). These results provide us better understanding and open new window for glucose metabolism of enterocytes during obesity.
European Food Information Council, Belgium
Title: Bridging the gap between theory and practice in behavior change: Science based resources with instructional videos
Time : 13:30-13:50
Raymond Gemen is Nutrition and Health Manager at the European Food Information Council (EUFIC). He has received BSc in Biology from Utrecht University and an MSc in Nutrition & Health from Wageningen University, both in the Netherlands. He has worked as a nutrition scientist in different public and private organizations in Europe. He has been involved in several international (EU funded) research projects and is an experienced science communicator. He currently sits on the scientific advisory board of Voeding Nu (Dutch nutrition journal for health professionals) and is an active alumnus of the European Nutrition Leadership Platform (ENLP).
Dietetic practice involves more than just the delivery of nutrition and bodyweight related advice. Dietetic practice is essentially involved in the complex processes of encouraging and supporting behavior change and maintenance. Recent work on the myPace project has sought to articulate emerging perspectives in behavior change theory and consider their application to both dietetic practice and the design of digital resources to support dietitians using behavior change in their practice. The Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy, developed mainly for research purposes at the University College London, served as a basis. We conducted interactive workshops with leading European dietitians and a survey of 585 dietitians across 27 European countries to determine dietitian requirements for digital support in applying behavior change techniques in their practice. These procedures identified the behavior change techniques dietitians use most often and those they would like to know more about. Tutorial videos were found to be the preferred mode of delivery for the digital resources. We identified and sorted 10 behavior change priorities to be addressed in our digital resources for dietitians. Both the development of the video outlines and the scenarios, as well as the recording of the actual videos, was done by dietitians to ensure the relevance and applicability of the behavior change techniques in practice. The behavioral components of the videos were developed with behavior change experts. The digital resources, developed to support not only dietitians but also other health professionals who use behavior change in practice, will be made available free of charge and hosted on the website of the European Federation of Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), in the course of 2016.
Dongguk University, South Korea
Title: Identification of gaps and stakeholder’s recommendations in terms of person centered nutrition care: Based on findings in the UK
Time : 13:50-14:10
Seolhyang Baek has completed her PhD from Pusan National University and worked twice as a Research Fellow at The University of Birmingham School of Psychology Medicine in 2003 as well as MRC-HNR NNedPro, Cambridge in UK in 2015. She is the Director of the office of international affairs at Dongguk University, as well as a Nursing Professor at School of Medicine. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Member of the committee of behavioral modification the Korean Society of Study of Obesity in South Korea
Prevalence of chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has not been decreased but rather increased in UK, one of most developed countries in which huge amount of effort have been implemented by government and health care professionals. The statistic possibly indicates that ordinary nutritional instruction such as ‘eat less, move more’ has not worked appropriately, therefore, we may need to turn our perspective toward newly emerging care paradigm such as person centered care in order to provision of quality nutrition care. The person centered care has emerged alongside four themes such as ‘care with dignity, compassion, respect’ ‘coordinated care’ ‘personalized care’ and ‘enable care’. The objective of this review was firstly to elicit gaps alongside those four themes of person centered care from scientific surveys that had conducted inside the UK. Secondly, in order to respond questions such as how to resolve the gaps as well as to clarify health care professional’s roles and responsibilities, recommendations from government and non-government stakeholders were reviewed; as a results of the finding, a few elements including liaison, training and education and awareness should be undertaken by all health care professionals. Doctors should perform specific activities such as detection and solving nutritional problem, whilst nurses should aware their legal limits and consult when required. Dietitians should develop nutritional training packages as well as provide talks and lectures for all health care professionals.
Mansoura University, Egypt
Title: Hypocholesterolemic effect of whole barley bread compared to whole wheat bread in diabetes induced hyperlipidemic rats
Time : 14:10-14:30
Alzahraa Mahmoud Hassan Motawei has been awarded her PhD in 2014 from Mansoura University and Postdoctoral research in Preventive and Clinical Nutrition studies from Copenhagen University, Faculty of Science for one year 2015-2016. She is a Lecturer at Food Industries Department, Faculty of Agriculture. She has experience in Molecular Biotechnology from FH Aachen in Germany, 2011, a premier applied bio-sciences institution.
Whole barley flour is a rich source of beta-glucan which is approved for cholesterol lowering effect. This makes barley a promising diet to improve health conditions related to metabolic diseases, especially Diabetes Mellitus. This study aims to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of Whole Barley Bread (WBB) on lipid profile composition in diabetes induced hyperlipidemic rats in comparison with Whole Wheat Bread (WWB). The biochemical effects of WBB compared with WWB were investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which were fed high cholesterol diet to cause mild hyperlipidemia. Thirty five rats were divided into 5 groups (7 rats each) (G1 control (+) and G2 control (-) as references) and 3 treatments fed on experimental diets, containing 100% WWB (G3), (50% WBB+50% WWB) bread (G4) and 100% WBB (G5), for eight weeks. Lipid profile composition total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and atherogenic index A.I. percentage) was investigated initially and after 8 weeks. At the end point, HDL was significantly higher in G5 than in G3 (24.03 mg/dl (+41.18%) and 16.67 mg/dl (-7.36%) (P=0.005)), respectively. The LDL-reducing effect in G5 was (57.57 mg/dl (-6.44%) compared to 14.8% increase in 100% WWB group from initial point. TG and TC decreased significantly (-16.14%, -7.01%, (p≤0.05)) in G5 compared with +3.59% and -3.59% in G3. By analysis of A.I. percentage the decrease was -36.49% and -4.21% in G5 and G3, respectively (p<0.005) comparing groups. G4 showed intermediate insignificant changes. Dietary supplementation with whole barley bread increases HDL cholesterol and also improves the total lipid profile and may be used as anti-diabetic diet replacing WWB.
Kenyatta University, Kenya
Time : 14:30-14:50
Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka is an Associate Professor of Analytical Chemistry with extensive research in Nutritional Chemistry and he is the Head of the Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University. He has completed his PhD degree in Food Science from the University of Leeds, UK and MSc degree from Kenyatta University. His research focuses on nutrients in foods with emphasis on processing procedures and their effects on nutritional and sensory values, bioavailability & bioconversion and food formulations. He has published several articles in reputable journals. He has supervised several PhD and MSc students, examined several theses and refereed several articles in reputable journals.
Nutritional therapy has been embraced as important in the care of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), as a way of optimizing the immune system, improving drug response and lowering medical care cost due to reduced susceptibility to opportunistic diseases. Further, some scientists are of the opinion that AIDS is caused by chemicals, drugs and malnutrition. Deficiency of micronutrients among PLWHA is associated with faster clinical progression of HIV disease to AIDS and supplementation of these elements has shown to improve immune system. Various intervention studies using food formulations consisting of indigenous foods have been used to evaluate the levels of serum zinc, retinol and alpha tocopherol and immunity with results indicating improved levels of the micronutrients and improved immunity. Use of indigenous food supplements have shown both clinical and immunological benefits and near significant reduction in viral load implying that low doses of micro nutrients favored viral load reduction. Since the use of HIV and AIDS drugs present several challenges including adverse health effects, resistance and compliance, mainstreaming the use of nutritional formulations in healthcare delivery looks promising.