Day 3 :
- Track 08: Nutrition during Adolescence
Track 09: Nutrition, Health and Aging
Track 10: Nutrition and Psychology
Track 11: Food and Nutrition
Track 12: Nutrition Epidemiology
Track 13: Current Research in Nutrition and Dietetics
Location: Olimpica 3&4
Susan Edgar Helm
Pepperdine University, USA
Conxita Mestres Miralles
University Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain
University of Florence , Italy
Title: Recovery of Hunger (IH) and diabetes regression after energy intake suspension up to loss of 20% body weight
Time : 10:00-10:20
Mario Ciampolini is a retired professor from Università di Firenze, Dept Pediatrics, directed the Gastroenterology Research Unit, a third level referral center in the department of Pediatrics of the University of Florence (Meyer hospital) for 40 years. He worked at the Cornell University for a joined research with the University of Florence on energy expenditure in children. Three students came from Amsterdam Medical Center to learn “Recognizing Hunger” he made the first diagnoses of celiac disease in Tuscany and published 130 scientific articles, about 40 in international Press.
Background: Obesity, diabetes, asthma, autism, birth defects, dyslexia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia have increased in children in the last half century. These increases may depend on the widespread, well known error in energy balance: the unremitting addition of fat at any meal for an error in the formation of the will (decision) to eat. The decision arises as conditioned before energy exhaustion of the energy available from previous meals. After meal suspension for up to 48 hours, all healthy people develop hunger sensations (Initial hunger, IH) that are not conditioned. Objective: Diabetic people are different in this: they do not develop any hunger sensation after meal cessation. Methods: We have reported the achievement of 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL BG and hunger sensations before daily meals in healthy children and adults after training the recognition of Initial Hunger (IH) to recover from functional disorders of the bowel, to recover body weight decrease and recover insulin sensitivity. Healthy subjects recognized IH from conditioned sensations by subjective comparison with the hunger that they initially experienced after meal suspension for less than 48 hours. Thereafter, subjects adapted energy intake to let arise IH three times a day (Initial Hunger Meal Pattern, IHMP). Preprandial BG measurements by autoanalyzer checked the recognition in the hospital lab before breakfast in 64 trained people that we compared with 72 controls. IHMP is a healthy, safe, normal, freely chosen homeostatic way of Nutrition that is found in a third of recruited children and adults at baseline, before any training. We tried to implement this training in two obese, diabetic adults out of two consecutive recruitments. The two subjects consumed meals devoid of fats and carbohydrates (VLD) for 6 to 12 months. Results: We found a loss of BG decline to 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL and loss of any hunger sensation after eating cessation in two diabetic subjects (out of two) who showed a BMI of 39 and 33 at recruitment. Both subjects lost 20% of their body weight and recovered 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL of BG and hunger sensations before two – three meals a day, i.e.: went off diabetes. Conclusion: Diabetes develops for inveterate conditioned intake (when previous energy intake has not been fully exhausted before meals), excessive fattening, excessive post-absorption emission of fatty acids from fatty tissues, permanent loss of BG decline to 76.6 ± 3.7 mg/dL and permanent loss of physiological signals of hunger. A healthy, non-diabetic life may be recovered by a painless loss of 20% body weight (No fats, no carbohydrates) and may be maintained by implementing IHMP at reappearance of hunger sensations. This means accurate energy intake planning instead of hunger endurance.
Susan Edgar Helm has completed her PhD in Physiological Chemistry at Univeristy of California Davis. She is the Director of the undergraduate and graduate Nutritional Science program at Pepperdine Unviersity, a private Liberal Arts Institution in Malibu, CA
Folate is critical for one carbon metabolism and has been implicated in mediation of Down syndrome symptoms. Both younger (<17 years) and older (>35 years) mothers are more prone to the experience of a Down syndrome infant. Red blood cell levels of folate of both mother and infant are low, implicating a dietary effect upon Down syndrome. Inconsistencies within the literature show dietary folate restriction to have preventive effects, whereas excess folate intake demonstrates adverse outcomes. MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism and low dietary intake of folic acid may restrict this enzyme in Down syndrome offspring and their mothers. The effect of dietary folic acid upon four other regulatory enzymes of protein methylation and transulfuration are involved. Ts65Dn mouse model has been successfully used to demonstrate a reversal of the cognitive behaviors of Down syndrome using the Beta2 adrenergic agonist, Formoterol. The Ts65Dn mouse was used to study dietary folic acid intervention and its’ effect upon the most likely enzyme of folate metabolism (MTHFR) and cognitive assessments that may have preventive effect on Down syndrome. The hypothesis was measurement of the response of Ts65Dn mice to 3 different dietary intake levels of folic acid, 0,2 and 7 ppm with changes in MTHFR activity and plasma 5-methyl-THF metabolic concentration. MTHFR activity and concentration of 5-methyl-THF assays were completed. The results of both assays demonstrate positive metabolic results from varying the levels of dietary folic acid in the diet consumed by the Down syndrome mouse. Differences between the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome and control mice were assessed by measurement of MTHFR activity and 5-CH3-THF concentrations in plasma. The study was conducted over a period of 6 months and with a total of 56 male mice provided the following dietary treatments (DS=Down Syndrome; C=Control; F=Folate; N=normal; L-low; H=High); n=9, DSNF; n=8, CNF; n=10 DSLF; n=10 CLF; n=9 DSHF; n=10 CHF. Statistical analysis revealed that the Control and Down syndrome mice were significantly different in terms of growth (p=0.003) and nesting behavior (p=0.000); with the Down syndrome having lower weight gain (M=1.9 g) and nesting behavior (M=2.35) compared to control weight gain (M=6.4 g) and nesting behavior (M=4.40). An analysis of the MTHFR activity has demonstrated no statistical difference between the control and Down syndrome mice in plasma MTHFR activity and yet, the Ts65Dn mice responded to the varying levels of dietary folic acid with changes in MTHFR activity and in plasma concentrations of 5-methyl THF. Dietary folic acid does impact the folate metabolism of the Ts65Dn mouse.
Tufts University, USA
Time : 11:00-11:20
Eileen Kennedy is the Dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and was the first Director of USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Kennedy holds an undergraduate degree from Hunter College, two master's degrees from Pennsylvania State University, and a Doctor of Science in Nutrition from Harvard's School of Public Health. Kennedy has long been involved in the academic arena of nutrition conducting research and teaching at Tufts, Columbia University, Cornell University and Johns Hopkins University. In 2008, Dr. Kennedy was named president of the "Smart Choices" board. “Smart Choices” is a front of label nutrition benchmarking system, a program whose criteria are based on government dietary guidelines and widely accepted nutritional standards.
There is a renewed interest in nutrition globally. The second International Conference on Nutrition in Nov. 2014 committed to eradicating malnutrition in all its forms. A key strategy for many countries is a combination of direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive, multi sector approaches. For both direct and indirect policies and programs to be successful, a key element is good governance. This paper will report the results of research from Ethiopia and Nepal on governance structures from national to sub national level. This research provides insights from key policy officials and stakeholders about how a range of policies and programs get translated from the design phase (on paper) to implementation (in practice).
Chikamori Hospital, Japan
Time : 11:20-11:40
In 1987 Yasushi Miyazawa graduated from Kitasato University School of Nutrition. He was an overseas trainee. in the year 1993 in Emory University Hospital, USA. In 2009 he became the Department head of Clinical Nutrition, CHIKAMORI Hospital Kochi Japan. He is also the board Director of Japanese society of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition and The Japan Heart failure Society. He is also a, Clinical Nutrition Professor of MIMASAKA University.
Stature and weight are important measures in assessing nutritional status. They are used to estimate basal energy expenditure, nutrient needs and to calculate BMI. For adults, accurate measurements of stature and weight depend upon who can be measured easily but many adults, especially the non-ambulatory and the very old are difficult or are unable to be measured. When stature and weight cannot be measured, they can be predicted. Prediction equations for stature and weight employ constituent body measurements that can be taken regardless of adult’s mobility status or health condition. The predictive accuracy of these equations is important so that the predicted values can be evaluated within known confidence limits and adjusted to meet nutritional recommendations. Accurate equations to predict stature and weight in adults have been developed. Equations developed from nationally representative samples have an increased utility among their general populations. Stature prediction equations have been developed separately for France, Taiwan, Italy, Mexico and Japan. In general, these population specific equations perform well but several have limited application because of the small samples used in development and the applicable age range. Also, there are no prediction equations for weight in any population outside of the U.S. The present study was undertaken to develop new accurate and more generalizable sex-specific stature and weight prediction equations using knee height and other body measurements to assist nutritional status assessments of the Japanese population. This study employed a large sample of 850 Japanese adults 21 years of age and older.
Conxita Mestres has completed hers Pharmacy Doctor Degree at the age of 28 years from the University of Barcelona. Has worked as Clinical Pharmacist between 1984-2006 in the Hospital Sant Rafael of Barcelona and as Quality Control and Patient Safety Coordinator, between 2006-2012 in the same Hospital. In parallel she has worked as assistant professor in the Pharmacy School of the University of Barcelona, between 1992 and 2008. Since 2012, she is Pharmacy Director in Grup Mutuam Barcelona (Group that works in Health Care in Long Term and Nursing Homes), and since 1992 she is assistant professor at School of Health Sciences Blanquerna. University Ramon Llull.Barcelona. In this institution she teaches in the Degrees of Dietetics, Physiotherapy and Pharmacy. He has published more than 70 papers in reputed journals and has published two books about pharmacology for Dietitians and for Physiotherapists.
Since the description of the serious interaction between IMAO drugs and tyramine containing foods in the 50s, food-drug interactions have won increasing importance and care. This is an important issue taking in account the increasing use of medications, especially in frail older people that are often polymedicated. Nowadays, we also include all the relations between nutritional status and drug treatment in this area. However we still facing some difficulties, such as: - Lack of information in new commercialized drugs, due to the fact that these interactions are not studied or evaluated in premarketing assays - Very few are described in patient’s handout - There are few databases and information sources, where health care professionals could find reliable and complete information. Moreover, not always health care givers takes fully in account or give the importance due to this kind of interaction. Therefore, I think that more work is needed in this area. For instance, to continue increasing the assays and works to detect unknown food-drug interactions and to have more knowledge about its importance in the patient outcome. And what is also very important is to increase the knowledge and awareness between physicians, pharmacists, dietitians and nurses, initiating them since the degree studies
Seoul National University, South Korea
Title: Household food insecurity is associated with lower dietary total antioxidant capacity of Korean adults
Time : 12:00-12:20
Hyojee Joung is a Professor of Public Health Nutrition at the Seoul National University. She has authored and co-authored more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed journals as well as several book chapters. She has served on dozens of scientific committees and advisory boards of academic associations in Korea and abroad.
Food insecurity has been reported to be associated with lower diet quality and lower intake of fruits and vegetables which might lead to decreased dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, little is known about the association between food insecurity and dietary TAC. This cross sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship of food insecurity and dietary TAC among 33,527 Korean adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Dietary TAC was estimated from the 24 hours dietary recall data using a TAC database of common Korean foods. Results showed that 5.8% of male adults and 6.7% of female adults were in food insecure households. Mean dietary TAC was significantly lower in food insecure groups (total 378.85 mg VCE/d; male 392.01 mg VCE/d; female 368.25 mg VCE/d) compared to food secure groups (total 588.55 mg VCE/d; male 575.81 mg VCE/d; female 601.11 mg VCE/d). The major contributing food groups to dietary TAC were fruits, vegetables and legumes and legume products in both groups but dietary TAC from each food group was significantly lower in food insecure group (170.42 mg VCE/d, 141.39 mg VCE/d and 41.83 mg VCE/d) compared with food secure group (315.24 mg VCE/d, 176.01 mg VCE/d and 50.01 mg VCE/d). This study demonstrated that food insecurity is associated with lower dietary TAC in a representative Korean population. Further research on the health effects of reduced dietary TAC among food insecure Korean adults is needed.
Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey
Title: How does high glucose affect to genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in fully differentiated human epithelial cell culture model
Time : 13:10-13:30
Sukru Gulec has received his Bachelor’s degree in Biology from Ankara University, Turkey. He has attended the Master of Science in Biotechnology, Ankara University College of Medicine and graduated in 2006. He has worked at Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) Department, University of Florida as a Biological Scientist. He was accepted as a PhD student and joined in nutritional science interdisciplinary program at FSHN Department, University of Florida in 2009. He has received his PhD from the University of Florida in 2013 and stayed in same department as Postdoctoral associate. He was hired as an Assistant Professor in Izmir Technical Institute in 2014.
Glucose is one of the nutritional factors that involves in developing of obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. The studies indicated that enterocyte cells on intestine might play a role in dietary glucose sensing during obesity. Obese people are consumed high amount of dietary glucose and enterocyte cells consequently are exposed to high glucose. Thus, we aimed to find relevant physiological pathways and genome-wide mRNA expression profiles that can be regulated by glucose in fully differentiated human intestinal epithelial (CaCo-2). The cells were maintained two different glucose levels (5.5 mM for control, 25 mM for high glucose) at least three passages. The cells were grown on transwell system for 21 days to mimic human intestine system. Transepithelial electrical resistances (TEER) were measured to control monolayer formation and polarization. RNA isolation was performed and whole genome mRNA expression profile was determined following gene ontology analysis to find affected molecular pathways. Compared to control relative glucose level was found high in basolateral site of CaCo-2 cells that were under high glucose condition without effecting TEER. GLUT2, SGLT1, GLUT5 mRNA levels were significantly reduced during elevated glucose levels which is consistent with literature. Significant fold change analysis showed that 351 genes up-regulated and 468 genes under high glucose condition. We found high glucose significantly leads changes of molecular pathways (down-regulated; insulin signaling, focal adhesion, inositol phosphate, fructose/mannose, glycolysis and up-regulated; ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, spliceosome, protein export). These results provide us better understanding and open new window for glucose metabolism of enterocytes during obesity.
European Food Information Council, Belgium
Title: Bridging the gap between theory and practice in behavior change: Science based resources with instructional videos
Time : 13:30-13:50
Raymond Gemen is Nutrition and Health Manager at the European Food Information Council (EUFIC). He has received BSc in Biology from Utrecht University and an MSc in Nutrition & Health from Wageningen University, both in the Netherlands. He has worked as a nutrition scientist in different public and private organizations in Europe. He has been involved in several international (EU funded) research projects and is an experienced science communicator. He currently sits on the scientific advisory board of Voeding Nu (Dutch nutrition journal for health professionals) and is an active alumnus of the European Nutrition Leadership Platform (ENLP).
Dietetic practice involves more than just the delivery of nutrition and bodyweight related advice. Dietetic practice is essentially involved in the complex processes of encouraging and supporting behavior change and maintenance. Recent work on the myPace project has sought to articulate emerging perspectives in behavior change theory and consider their application to both dietetic practice and the design of digital resources to support dietitians using behavior change in their practice. The Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy, developed mainly for research purposes at the University College London, served as a basis. We conducted interactive workshops with leading European dietitians and a survey of 585 dietitians across 27 European countries to determine dietitian requirements for digital support in applying behavior change techniques in their practice. These procedures identified the behavior change techniques dietitians use most often and those they would like to know more about. Tutorial videos were found to be the preferred mode of delivery for the digital resources. We identified and sorted 10 behavior change priorities to be addressed in our digital resources for dietitians. Both the development of the video outlines and the scenarios, as well as the recording of the actual videos, was done by dietitians to ensure the relevance and applicability of the behavior change techniques in practice. The behavioral components of the videos were developed with behavior change experts. The digital resources, developed to support not only dietitians but also other health professionals who use behavior change in practice, will be made available free of charge and hosted on the website of the European Federation of Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), in the course of 2016.
Dongguk University, South Korea
Title: Identification of gaps and stakeholder’s recommendations in terms of person centered nutrition care: Based on findings in the UK
Time : 13:50-14:10
Seolhyang Baek has completed her PhD from Pusan National University and worked twice as a Research Fellow at The University of Birmingham School of Psychology Medicine in 2003 as well as MRC-HNR NNedPro, Cambridge in UK in 2015. She is the Director of the office of international affairs at Dongguk University, as well as a Nursing Professor at School of Medicine. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Member of the committee of behavioral modification the Korean Society of Study of Obesity in South Korea
Prevalence of chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has not been decreased but rather increased in UK, one of most developed countries in which huge amount of effort have been implemented by government and health care professionals. The statistic possibly indicates that ordinary nutritional instruction such as ‘eat less, move more’ has not worked appropriately, therefore, we may need to turn our perspective toward newly emerging care paradigm such as person centered care in order to provision of quality nutrition care. The person centered care has emerged alongside four themes such as ‘care with dignity, compassion, respect’ ‘coordinated care’ ‘personalized care’ and ‘enable care’. The objective of this review was firstly to elicit gaps alongside those four themes of person centered care from scientific surveys that had conducted inside the UK. Secondly, in order to respond questions such as how to resolve the gaps as well as to clarify health care professional’s roles and responsibilities, recommendations from government and non-government stakeholders were reviewed; as a results of the finding, a few elements including liaison, training and education and awareness should be undertaken by all health care professionals. Doctors should perform specific activities such as detection and solving nutritional problem, whilst nurses should aware their legal limits and consult when required. Dietitians should develop nutritional training packages as well as provide talks and lectures for all health care professionals.
Mansoura University, Egypt
Title: Hypocholesterolemic effect of whole barley bread compared to whole wheat bread in diabetes induced hyperlipidemic rats
Time : 14:10-14:30
Alzahraa Mahmoud Hassan Motawei has been awarded her PhD in 2014 from Mansoura University and Postdoctoral research in Preventive and Clinical Nutrition studies from Copenhagen University, Faculty of Science for one year 2015-2016. She is a Lecturer at Food Industries Department, Faculty of Agriculture. She has experience in Molecular Biotechnology from FH Aachen in Germany, 2011, a premier applied bio-sciences institution.
Whole barley flour is a rich source of beta-glucan which is approved for cholesterol lowering effect. This makes barley a promising diet to improve health conditions related to metabolic diseases, especially Diabetes Mellitus. This study aims to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of Whole Barley Bread (WBB) on lipid profile composition in diabetes induced hyperlipidemic rats in comparison with Whole Wheat Bread (WWB). The biochemical effects of WBB compared with WWB were investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which were fed high cholesterol diet to cause mild hyperlipidemia. Thirty five rats were divided into 5 groups (7 rats each) (G1 control (+) and G2 control (-) as references) and 3 treatments fed on experimental diets, containing 100% WWB (G3), (50% WBB+50% WWB) bread (G4) and 100% WBB (G5), for eight weeks. Lipid profile composition total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and atherogenic index A.I. percentage) was investigated initially and after 8 weeks. At the end point, HDL was significantly higher in G5 than in G3 (24.03 mg/dl (+41.18%) and 16.67 mg/dl (-7.36%) (P=0.005)), respectively. The LDL-reducing effect in G5 was (57.57 mg/dl (-6.44%) compared to 14.8% increase in 100% WWB group from initial point. TG and TC decreased significantly (-16.14%, -7.01%, (p≤0.05)) in G5 compared with +3.59% and -3.59% in G3. By analysis of A.I. percentage the decrease was -36.49% and -4.21% in G5 and G3, respectively (p<0.005) comparing groups. G4 showed intermediate insignificant changes. Dietary supplementation with whole barley bread increases HDL cholesterol and also improves the total lipid profile and may be used as anti-diabetic diet replacing WWB.
Kenyatta University, Kenya
Time : 14:30-14:50
Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka is an Associate Professor of Analytical Chemistry with extensive research in Nutritional Chemistry and he is the Head of the Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University. He has completed his PhD degree in Food Science from the University of Leeds, UK and MSc degree from Kenyatta University. His research focuses on nutrients in foods with emphasis on processing procedures and their effects on nutritional and sensory values, bioavailability & bioconversion and food formulations. He has published several articles in reputable journals. He has supervised several PhD and MSc students, examined several theses and refereed several articles in reputable journals.
Nutritional therapy has been embraced as important in the care of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), as a way of optimizing the immune system, improving drug response and lowering medical care cost due to reduced susceptibility to opportunistic diseases. Further, some scientists are of the opinion that AIDS is caused by chemicals, drugs and malnutrition. Deficiency of micronutrients among PLWHA is associated with faster clinical progression of HIV disease to AIDS and supplementation of these elements has shown to improve immune system. Various intervention studies using food formulations consisting of indigenous foods have been used to evaluate the levels of serum zinc, retinol and alpha tocopherol and immunity with results indicating improved levels of the micronutrients and improved immunity. Use of indigenous food supplements have shown both clinical and immunological benefits and near significant reduction in viral load implying that low doses of micro nutrients favored viral load reduction. Since the use of HIV and AIDS drugs present several challenges including adverse health effects, resistance and compliance, mainstreaming the use of nutritional formulations in healthcare delivery looks promising.
Catherine Wickham is a Doctoral Candidate and Research Assistant in the Nutrition Department at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA. Her research focuses on the intersection of technology, communication and nutrition education. She is a Registered Dietitian and obtained a MS in Nutrition from the University of Saint Joseph. She has taught courses in foodservice management, food preparation and food safety and has served as a Teaching Assistant for Dr. Elena Carbone at the Gustolab Institute, Rome, Italy. She has presented lectures on mhealth, the use of technology in diet assessment and obesity and has an extensive background in food service management.
One in three adolescents in the US is overweight or obese. This is a serious public health concern as these adolescents are experiencing serious health conditions once only seen in adults. Adolescents are at a unique life style stage and are beginning to develop transitional decision making skills. Innovative food literacy programs that address decision making, promote the use of community based participatory methods and use engaging technology are needed. Low income, ethnically diverse adolescents 12-16 years old from Springfield, MA were recruited to participate in the FuelUp&Go! pilot. The program included focus groups and six in-person sessions. In addition, participants used a fitness tracker and app, received weekly text messages and visited the programs website. Twenty one participants attended the sessions and matched pre/post survey data were collected from nine. Overall, food related knowledge was low but increased slightly at post test (from 3.00 to 3.56 points out of 9 points). Attitudes toward fruits and water did not improve; however, attitudes toward vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and physical activities trended positive. Participants’ reported small increases in the number of days they engaged in physical activity. Overall, most program components were well received with a mean of 4.0 or greater (1=didn’t like at all, 5=really liked a lot) including wearing a tracker, syncing the tracker, visiting the program website, receiving weekly tips and learning about food related topics. Phase two of this project will begin in January of 2016. Insight gained from the pilot will help inform the implementation of program components for phase two.
University of Lleida, Spain
Dr. Alba Naudí has completed her PhD in Biomedical Sciences in the area of physiology at the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Lleida in 2010. Nowadays, she is professor in the Experimental Medicine Department from the University of Lleida, teaching Nutricionists, Biomedical and Medical students. Her field of research has focused on the study of the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases from the point of view of oxidative stress and how the nutritionals interventions can modulate this process. She has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and has served as a peer reviewer for a number of scientific journals.
Calorie restriction (CR) is the best known nutritional treatment for the modulation of the aging process and for the increase of the maximum longevity in species ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates. However, new findings challenge the traditional consensus that the reduction in caloric intake by itself may promote an increased in longevity. It is known that protein restriction (PR) and specially methionine restriction (MetR) mimic the effects of CR, producing 50% of the observed increase in longevity. Although, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well elucidate. Our work focus on the study of factors that cause a reduction of oxidative stress and the mean and maximum longevity increase during dietary interventions, in order to try to unravel some of the fundamental mechanisms of aging. We have used different kinds of nutritional interventions in rodents, such as 40% of PR or 40-80% of MetR, among others. We have demonstrated that PR and MetR induce a significant decrease in endogenous oxidative molecular damage at the level of mitochondrial DNA and protein injury, derived from glyco and lipoxidative damage. These interventions also produce changes in the fatty acid composition and a decrease in the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Specifically, we have observed a specific lipidomic signatures in the central nervous system compared with liver in MetR mice. All these results place the methionine as a key aminoacid to modulate oxidative stress and longevity in rodents and throw light upon a possible extrapolation for human beings as a healthy nutritional intervention.
Wageningen University, the Netherlands
Lisette CPGM de Groot is a Professor of Nutrition and Ageing at the Division of Human Nutrition at Wageningen University, the Netherlands. She was trained in nutrition, physiology and epidemiology at the Wageningen University. With academic posts at several University departments she has gained 25 years of research experience in the field of nutrition and health of elderly people, both in nutritional epidemiology (including e.g., SENECA, Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly; EURRECA European micronutrient recommendations aligned; HALE; NuAge; Chances) and in intervention studies in old age. Her research interests centres around the role of nutrition in the maintenance of health in old age with due attention for nutritional ways to slow down ageing related functional decline.
The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. This paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing related disorders that present themselves in later life. With basically similar nutritional requirements as the adult population at large, in old age both the quality and the quantity of the diet are important to ensure that requirements for both macronutrient and micronutrient intakes are met. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. As older people age, they may need fewer calories because they are not as physically active as when they were younger and their metabolic rate slows down. As a result nutrients and food components need to be obtained with less energy intake and nutrient and food density of the diet needs to increase Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Unfortunately sustained adherence to such generic guidelines tends to be low. Effective strategies to enhance or sustain adherence to such guidance are therefore warranted, further to the development of age-specific and up-to-date guidelines or recommendations specifically for older adults An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the mean time reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), Spain
Jara Pérez-Jiménez completed her PhD in 2007. She has worked in several research centres and universities in Spain and France focused on the study of food bioactive compounds, in particular polyphenols, using a multidisciplinary approach. She is co-author of more than 45 highly-cited papers in international scientific journals, and more than 50 works presented in scientific meetings and invited conferences in different universities. She is a member of the Experts Committee on Human Nutrition of the French Agency of Food Safety, as well as of the Editorial Board of Food Research International.
Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets rich in antioxidants reduce the overall risk of several chronic diseases. However, these studies focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota, with beneficial effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. Despite the increasing evidence of the potential beneficial role of macromolecular antioxidants (Pérez-Jiménez et al., Nutr Res Rev, 2013), including recent content data in F&V (Pérez-Jiménez and Saura-Calixto, Food Res Intl, 2015), studies on their presence in foodstuffs are still limited. This study aimed to evaluate by the first time the macromolecular antioxidant content in peels from common fruits. The analysis of macromolecular antioxidants by validated methodologies (including HPLC-MS) was carried out in peels from ten fruits. The samples presented appreciable contents of macromolecular antioxidants, from 700 mg/100 g dm in watermelon to 11,730 mg/100 g dw in banana. Mango and kiwi were also rich in macromolecular antioxidants- about 5,000 mg/100 g dm. Indeed, fruit peels had a higher content in macromolecular antioxidants than the edible part of the fruit, with proportions from 1.1-fold (apple) to 4.7-fold (watermelon). This shows the need to encourage whole fruit consumption, since peels may contribute to the intake of macromolecular antioxidants. It also suggests the application of fruit peels- commonly discarded in industry- as source of this new type of antioxidants.
Bournemouth University, UK
K M Appleton graduated from the University of Southampton in 1993 with a B Sc (Hons.) in Psychology and from the University of Leeds in 1998 with a PhD in Biological Psychology / Nutrition. She has worked at the Universities of Leeds, Surrey and Bristol and at Queen’s University, Belfast, UK and joined Bournemouth University in Sept. 2012. She is a Chartered Psychologist (British Psychological Society, 2001) and a Registered Nutritionist (Nutrition Society, 2001), with research interests that focus on understanding and encouraging healthy eating in the general population.
Protein-specific under-nutrition is considered to affect 10-40% of older adults in Europe and the US, with potential detriments to health and wellbeing. This under-nutrition is considered to result, at least in part, from low protein intakes. Various reasons for the low consumption of protein-rich foods can be provided by older adults and analyses of these reasons in association with low intakes of animal-based protein-rich foods (meat, fish, eggs, dairy products) identify both the reasons of greatest impact on consumption and the reasons of greatest impact on consumption in those most at risk from low protein status. These reasons centre on a low liking for the taste of protein-rich foods, perceptions of inconvenience due to the effort involved, perceptions of low value for money in terms of high cost and high spoilage and wastage and low perceptions of healthiness. Strategies to increase intakes of protein-rich foods that focus on these particular reasons may demonstrate increased success, in terms of intakes and improved protein status. Several studies have recently investigated the impact of increasing liking for and the tastiness of protein-rich foods via the addition of already-liked tastes in the form of condiments, sauces or seasonings, or the use of repeated exposure and positive experience to increase familiarity. These studies typically demonstrate success in terms of intakes and thus can be effective in the short term, but impacts in the long term and so the impacts of these strategies on protein status are yet to be established. Strategies focusing on convenience, value for money and healthiness have also been attempted, but the evidence here is less comprehensive. This talk provides the detail of the work completed so far, and considers the work still needed.
Mangosuthu University of Technology, South Africa
Xolile Mkhize is a PhD student in food and nutrition at the Durban University of Technology and has over 8 years industrial experience in the food industry. She is currently working as senior lecturer in the Department of Community Extension at Mangosuthu University of Technology and seats in the faculty of natural science research committee. She has published two papers and has presented in international and local conferences. She is also involved in food security projects within KwaZulu Natal with key focus on vulnerable groups.
A food security project is an instrumental platform for students to demonstrate acquired knowledge and practical applications in a nutrition course. A vulnerable community was used by students as a service learning platform in order to improve dietary diversification among elderly within this community. The objective was to develop a sustainable project focusing on vegetable production, nutrition education and providing extension advisory services for the gardens established. This was to improve vegetable intake and enhance dietary diversification. Structured questionnaires were developed for each team and presented through interviews and focus group discussions during visits for phase-one of the project. Student teams had to perform various tasks through a situational analysis of the environment; design assessment tools then, provide relevant activities to address nutritional needs. There was evidence of conceptualized nutrition education through educational material developed (providing translations in isiZulu) for the elderly to understand nutritional terms and food based dietary guidelines. Students demonstrated a link between nutrition, agriculture and extension as a comprehensive intervention for community members to sustain the project. More strategies are needed to improve eating patterns, food habits and agricultural production within the limited financial budget of this community.
National Food and Nutrition Institute, Poland
Lucjan Szponar was graduated at the Faculty of Medicine Lublin M.D.Ph.D 1971. Active participation in eight international EU research and implementation projects as a head of polish part: PERIAPT, ERA-NET; SafeFoodNet, SAFEFOODERA; PorGrow EU Project; PHARE 2001; PHARE 2002, MONIQA. Director of the National Food and Nutrition Institute (NFNI) 1991 –2001. Head of Department of Food Safety and Nutrition 1991- 2008. He has been assoc prof of medicine in Nutrition and Dietetic Department (NFNI) since 2013. Author or co-author of over 425 scientific publications on different aspects of descriptive epidemiology of human nutrition, food safety and prevention of diet related diseases.
Cross sectional ,representative ,at country level, nutrition surveys of non pregnant and pregnant women has been carried out in the period 1985 -2014. It was estimated the content of energy and nutrients in about 5000 non-pregnant and 2000 pregnant women daily diets . In each part of surveys the data about pattern nutrition were collected using 24 hour recall method. The findings were used as a inputs for diagnosis and early identification of health risks of non-pregnant, pregnant women and their offsprings. Main nutrition faults: • high prevalence energy from total fat, saturated fat and deficiency of n-3 PUFA; • too high sodium, phosphorus intake from daily diet in pregnant and non-pregnant women; o the lower than recommended or inadequate intake of iodine, iron, vitamin D • calcium ,fiber, folates. Conclusions • This nutrition surveys of women at 15-49 years are the most representative at national level in the last three decades: • Without improvement of nutrition and state of nutrition of women population at procreative age, is impossible to reduce prevalence of low birth weight, macrosomia and other health disturbances caused by faulty nutrition • To strengthen public health system, it seems to arouse interest of the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy