Day 3 :
- Nutrition- Health and Choice | Nutrient related Chronic diseases | Vitaminology & Lipidology | Paediatric Nutrition | Food & Nutritional Toxicology | Diet in Obesity and Underweight
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Iran
CESPU University, Portugal
Time : 09:30-10:00
Roni Lara Moya has done his studies in Biomedicine from the University of Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo. He has done his specialization in Anti-Aging Medicine from Seville University, Spain. He completed his Master of Science in Molecular and Cellular Immunology and Biology from the University of Coimbra, Portugal and Master of Science in Clinical Advanced Nutrition from the University of Barcelona, Spain. He did his PhD in Biomedicine and Immunology from the Gulbenkian Institute of Science and Coimbra University. He is the Coordinator of Orthomolecular Medicine of ReGenera Research Group for Aging Intervention. He is the Professor and Director of the Graduation Program in Orthomolecular Therapy-CESPU University, Portugal. He is the Scientific Advisor for Nutraceuticals and Cell Therapy Companies in Europe
One of the main health problems of the contemporary life and a mandatory concern to all anti-aging physicians is the outcome of the constant contact with the high level of intoxication, which can be connected to the widest range of diseases, from allergies till cancer or neurodegeneration. Discussion of the physiological pathways for detoxification has been mainly centered around phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Some key nutrients and antioxidants substances, which can inhibit the oxidation of a molecule and have the capacity to nullify the ill effects of oxidation caused by free radicals in the living organisms, have been and continue to be investigated for their role in the modulation of metabolic pathways involved in detoxification processes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase are the key enzymatic antioxidants of this defense system by which the free radicals that are produced during metabolic reactions are removed. Several publications to date have leveraged cell, animal, and clinical studies to demonstrate that within the correct dose and synergy, food-derived components and nutrients can function as important co-factors to modulate processes of conversion and excretion of toxins from the body. The “Phase I” cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes (CYP450) is generally the first defense employed by the body to bio transform xenobiotics, steroid hormones, and pharmaceuticals. These microsomal membrane-bound, heme-thiolate proteins, located mainly in the liver, but also in enterocytes, kidneys, lung, and even the brain, are responsible for the oxidation, peroxidation, and reduction of several endogenous and exogenous substrates. It is accepted that any variability in the number of CYP450 enzymes could have benefit(s) and/or consequence(s) for how some individual responds to the effect(s) of (a) toxin(s). Many nutrients appear to act as both inducers and inhibitors of CYP1 enzyme. These findings indicate that specific foods, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, etc., may upregulate or favorably balance metabolic pathways to assist with toxin biotransformation and subsequent elimination. Various foods such as cruciferous vegetables, berries, soy, garlic, turmeric and other spices, plus probiotics and exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins C, E, B complex, glutathione, cysteine, taurine, methionine, L-carnitine, CoQ10, etc., have been suggested to be beneficial and commonly prescribed as part of the orthomolecular and functional medicine-based therapies. The objective of this talk is to highlight the clinical effect of the orthomolecular nutrients in the detoxification mechanisms. Enhance the knowledge about the main antioxidants, foods, and their individual phytonutrients, especially in the case of dietary supplements and functional foods, could be worthwhile for clinicians to consider for patients who are taking a polypharmacy approach or are in contact with pollution by-products, heavy metals, hormones and further xenobiotics.
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Iran
Title: Whether probiotic supplementation is effective in prevention of the hyperglycemia induced maternal hypertension?
Time : 10:00-10:30
Hajifaraji Majid is a Research Associate Professor in Nutritional Sciences of the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (NNFTRI), and has been served as Dean of Faculty of Nutritional Sciences and Food Technology (FNSFT) from 2010- 2015 and President of Iranian Nutrition Society (INS) from 2011-2015. He has a PhD in clinical nutrition program at Kings College, London University.
Despite achieved progress in the control and treatment of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), these patients are still at risk of disease complications. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of probiotic supplement on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among GDM pregnant women.
In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 64 pregnant women with GDM were assigned into two groups and received probiotic capsule (n=32) or placebo (n=32) for 8 weeks. Blood pressures were measured at baseline and 2 weeks intervals and up to 8 weeks.
56 subjects were analyzed at the end of the study. After 8 weeks, SBP didn’t differ significantly in probiotic group at any time checkpoint but increased significantly in placebo group. DBP changes in a trend in probiotic group was obvious after 2 weeks and was reducing towards, however in placebo group, there was a tendency for higher DBP after week 6. There were significant differences between two groups of study after 6 weeks in the terms of SBP[104.828 (2.051) mmHg vs. 112.963 (2.126) mmHg , p=0.008 and 106.552(1.845)mmHg vs. 115.185(1.912)mmHg, p=0.002, in weeks 6 and 8 respectively] and DBP [62.414 (1.353) mmHg vs. 70.741 (1.402) mmHg , p<0.001and 60.690 (1.540)mmHg vs. 71.296 (1.596)mmHg, p< 0.001, in weeks 6 and 8 respectively].
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that taking probiotic supplements for 8 weeks in patients with GDM prevented the increase of SBP and resulted in reduction of DBP after 2 weeks of consumption.
Time : 10:30-11:00
Yi-Cheng Hou beening detention since June 2007 in Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital. So far, in the clinical business in the deep understanding of pre-diabetes and diabetes patients have an increasing trend for the active intervention of this group of patients become urgent of the subject. Diabetes and pre-diabetes in addition to blood sugar than the average person, the nutritional intake and diet behavior correction, intestinal function has begun to occur lesions, and even whether the brain structure has begun to change, need to be strictly monitored. Therefore, Hou dietitian research is mainly for pre-diabetes and diabetes patients with the above objectives of the intervention. During the working period, two papers have been published in the domestic society, ten international papers, one from SCI original papers and international journals SCI papers.
The functional connectivity of diabetes can help us explain the brain function decline in hyperglycemic status. However, the issue has not been addressed much in prediabetes. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the inter-hemispheric coordination in the prediabetes. Sixty-four prediabetic patients and fifty-four controls were enrolled in this protocol. They received the structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging screen. The imaging data were preprocessed and analyzed to obtain voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), which can measure inter-hemispheric coordination. The VMHC values were compared between two groups with age and gender as covariates. The controls had higher VMHC values than prediabetic patients in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. The prediabetic patients had higher VMHC values than controls in bilateral middle frontal gyrus. The VMHC values were also negatively correlated with pre-prandial serum glucose level in inferior frontal gyrus of prediabetic patients. In addition, the VMHC values of prediabetic patients were negatively correlated with total carbohydrate and calorie intake in anterior cingulate cortex. The inter-hemispheric coordination in anterior sub-network of default mode network and fronto-cingulate regions would play a role in the pathophysiology of prediabetes. The diet impact on the inter-hemispheric coordination is also an interesting issue.
Young Researchers Forum
Ankara University, Turkey
Time : 11:20-11:40
Çaglar Akçalı has completed her Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetic from Ege University. She is doing her Master’s degree in Department of Nutrition and Dietetic at Ankara Univesity. Also, she is a Research Assistant at the same university.
Essential subject taking place within the education process of students of nutrition and dietetics who are responsible for the regulation of nutrition of whole society and trainings in this issue is on bodily use of nutritional elements and disease relations. The aim of this study is to figure out to what extent effects of micronutrients on nutrition and human health is known by especially students of nutrition and dietetics who lead the society in terms of nutrition. This study has been conducted with 168 (157 females and 11 males) undergraduate students in 3th and 4th grade of Department of Nutrition and Dietetics of two universities. In the study, micronutrient knowledge of students has been investigated. A questionnaire form with 33 questions has been used in the study. 1 and 0 points have been given to each true, false and neutral responses respectively. In total, minimum 0 and maximum 33 points can be obtained. In all statistical tests, significance level has been accepted as p <0.05. Any significant difference has not been found between average knowledge points and gender, age, grade and university (p >0.05). It has been figured out that average knowledge point of students is 19. This study has an importance in terms of determining the knowledge level of students of nutrition and dietetics who have a vital role in protection of community health about micronutrient resources, its recommended doses, health problems as a result of inadequate or high intakes. As a result of the study, knowledge level of the ones who have taken education in this issue is moderate. Following the current guides may be helpful for the students to keep their knowledge updated.
Ankara University, Turkey
Time : 11:40-12:00
Semsi Gul Yilmaz was born on February 6, 1993, in Konya, Turkey. In 2014, she has completed from Gazi University’s Department of Nutrition and Dietetics in Ankara after graduating from primary school and high school in Konya. She is doing her Master's degree in Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Ankara University in 2015. Also, she is a Research Assistant at the same university. She is interested in obesity, nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, genotoxicity
Statement of the Problem: The prevalence of obesity has reached very serious dimensions and continues to increase day by day. Most of the studies aimed at obesity consist of physiological and biochemical clinical studies. However, obesity is not only a psychological and physiological aspect, but also an important health problem that should be addressed by social aspects due to discriminatory or stigmatizing and prejudiced behaviors of obese individuals against others in the society. The purpose of this study is to determine the body perception and obesity prejudice in university students.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The study was conducted on 607 university students (465 female and 142 male) in Ankara. The GAMS-27 Obesity Prejudice Scale was used to assess the prevalence of obesity and to be focused on the views of participants about obese individuals, their health status, and their social relationships. The significance level in all statistical tests was accepted as p<0.05.
Findings: The mean body mass index (BMI) of male was 23.6±3.02 kg/m2 while female was 21.4±2.72 kg/m2. The rate of participation in the negative statement about body perception and obesity prejudice in the prejudiced group was found to be higher than the unprejudiced group. Numerical differences between those who were prejudiced and unprejudiced were statistically significant.
Conclusion & Significance: Many individuals think that they are not prejudiced against obese individuals, but there are prejudices that they are not aware of it. Although most participants state that they are not prejudiced against obese individuals, it is clear that the result is prejudiced or prone to bias. Obesity prejudice and body perception disturbance are a very important problem today. In order to determine the necessary policies for resolving these problems, it is necessary to carry out more comprehensive studies on the causes and the influences of these situations.
Federal University of Goiás, Brazil
Time : 12:00-12:20
Ana Gabriella Pereira Alves is a Nutritionist graduated from the Federal University of Goiás, Brazil. C er’s degree in Health Sciences (Faculty of Medicine/Federal University of Goiás, Brazil) and is currently a PhD student in the same program. She concluded a postgraduate in Sports Nutrition and is a postgraduate student in Functional Clinical Nutrition, co-author of two book chapters, related to Sports Nutrition, and is Anthropometrist ISAK Level 1. She is also a Member of the Laboratory of Physiology, Nutrition and Health (Faculty of Physical Education and Dance/Federal University of Goiás, Brazil).
Statement of the Problem: Overweight is a worldwide public health problem, including in Brazil, and fruits and vegetables consumption is a way to prevent it. In relation to vitamin C, found mainly in fruits and vegetables, its consumption contributes to the reduction of the inflammatory process associated with overweight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin C intake and obesity in Brazilian adults.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was developed in approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Federal University of Goiás, Brazil. The body fat percentage was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the subjects were classified as obese and non-obese. For the assessment of the adequacy of vitamin C intake, were collected 24-hour dietary recalls in three non-consecutive days, including one day of the weekend, considering the average intake. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of low vitamin C intake between obese and non-obese. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between obesity and vitamin C intake. P values <0.05 were considered significant.
Findings: Of the 31 participants, 96.8% were female and the mean age was 41.39 (±11,36) years. There was a greater prevalence of low vitamin C intake among obese adults (p=0.006) (Table 1), and the low intake of vitamin C increased the chance of being obesity (OR=0.060, p= 0.028) (Table 2).
Conclusion: The consumption of foods rich in vitamin C should be encouraged among the assessed obese adults, improving the intake of foods with lower energy density and higher antioxidante status, which consenquently will prevent future health problems.
University of Nairobi, Kenya
Title: Overweight in Children: An Unexpected Outcome by Trained Community Health Workers in a Rural Setting in Kisumu County, Kenya
Time : 12:20-12:40
Caroline Sawe is a Lecturer at Moi University, Kenya. She teaches Human Nutrition. She is a PhD student at University of Nairobi Kenya in Applied Human Nutrition. She holds a Master’s degree in Public Health (Moi University, Kenya), Bachelors of Sciences degree in Foods Nutrition and Dietetics (Egerton University, Kenya). Prior to joining Moi University, she worked at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret as a Nutrition Office and an HIV nutrition research project. She believes research is the most important service she can provide to her poor community because it is only opportunity she can help a generation function knowledgeably in a society where rapid technological advances constantly pose new questions and ethical challenges.
Globally an estimated 19 million children are malnourished. The prevalence of child overweight is rising in low income countries and more in the poor rural setting. It is no longer associated with socio economic elite. It predisposes individuals to adulthood obesity, psychological morbidity and is associated with increase in prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This is a public health issue that needs urgent intervention. In several communities, trained Community Health Workers have been used as agents of improving nutritional outcomes and have proved effective. World Vision Kenya trains them on timed target counseling where they visit mothers and give key nutrition messages at specific times during child’s growth. This study assessed the effect of the counseling intervention on nutritional status of 101 children aged below two years in a rural setting in Kenya. The analysis compared nutritional status before and after the intervention. Child weight and height were collected and Weight for Age Z-scores calculated. Mean age of children was 11.84 months, weight 8.6kg, height 70.86cm and 51(50.5%) were females. The prevalence of overweight and severely overweight was 3.79% and 3.01% at baseline and 10.89% and 4.95% (chi= 21.547, p<0.001) respectively at end-line. It is emerging that overweight in young children is a worrying trend and interventions even in poor settings should not ignore over-nutrition. This trend should be tamed before in early years of life so as to avert its negative consequences in later years.
Hacettepe University, Turkey
Time : 12:40-13:00
Gulsum Gizem Topal works as Research Assistant in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Hacettepe University. She holds a Master’s degree on Food Service System. Her Master’s thesis topic is the determination of the aflatoxin M1 levels in different yogurt types in the markets. She wants to continue her academic life with food carcinogens that she is interested in.
Statement of the Problem: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. There are some studies that probiotics have a binding ability to AFM1, so that they can remove the AFM1 from yoghurt. The aim of this study is to evaluate the AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria in phosphate buffer saline.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA.
Findings: The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p<0.05).
Conclusion & Significance: Results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.
Hacettepe University, Turkey
Time : 13:00-13:20
Sumeyra Sevim has gratuated from Department of Nutrient and Dietetics, Hacettepe University in 2013 and Master’s degree in Food Service System at Hacettepe University, then she completed her Master’s degree which is related to AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria in 2016. She is still a PhD student. She wants to work on probiotic bacteria for her PhD thesis.
Statement of the Problem: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) represents mutagenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive properties, and shows adverse effect on human health. It is emphasized that probiotic bacteria can reduce the level of toxin by AFM1 binding ability in recent studies. Moreover, the studies show that inulin is a prebiotic to improve the ability of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inulin on AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Yoghurt samples were manufactured with artificially contaminated skimmed milk powder with 100 pg/ml AFM1. Different samples were prepared using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus as yoghurt starter bacteria and L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672 as probiotic bacteria. Moreover, the same work groups were prepared with inulin (4%). The samples were incubated at 42°C for 4 hours, then stored for three different time interval (1, 5 and 10 days). The toxin was measured by the ELISA.
Findings: When inulin was added to work groups, there was significant change AFM1 binding ability at least one sample in all groups except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (68.7%) was found in B. bifidum and inulin added samples, while the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (47.2%) was found in B. animalis and inulin added samples. The most impressive effect of inulin was found on B. bifidum. In this study, it was obtained that there was a significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in the all groups with inulin except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05).
Conclusion & Significance: Results show that AFM1 detoxification by probiotics has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Besides, inulin has different effects on AFM1 binding ability of each probiotic bacteria strain.
Extended Networking Session
Awards & Closing Ceremony
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Professor Kaj Winther was earlier deeply involved in cardiovascular research and medicine with special reference to thrombosis and haemostasis and worked for a period at the Harvard Medical School, Boston, on the topic “Circadian variation in Myocardial Infraction”. Later in his career he more and more focused on development and clinical testing of herbal remedies and different versions of new foods. His interest in food and herbal remedies is also based on the fact that much prescription medicine including the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID`s) are blamed for serious side effects. As many of our top athletes and more and more of the average population trying to get into a “better shape” is abusing NSAID`s, more attention should be drawn to develop new “pain-killers” without serious side effects. Here some food supplements, herbal remedies and some new foods, might be interesting to future develop – replies Kaj Winther.
Statement of the problem: Strenuous exercise results in muscle pain and stiffness. This can reduce training capacity, success during competition and quality of life, especially if optimal daily performance is mandatory as in bicycling (Tour de France) or in team sports (hockey and soccer) where tournaments can go for days. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID`s) reduces muscle symptoms. However, gastro intestinal “side effects” occur. This research aims to clarify if powdered rose hip, subspecies LiTo, containing galactolipid GOPO and seeds alleviates muscle pain and stiffness observed after exercise. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: Randomized, placebo controlled studies were conducted in 76 horses (trotters) and in 44 greyhounds treated 0.1 – 0.3 g powder/kg body weigh daily, for three month. The staff around the animals evaluated muscle pain and stiffness on questionnaires and animal competition speed. Healthy, human, middle age, modestly trained volunteers in randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled design and 18 younger trained volunteers (cross-fit), in open trial, were given the same treatment, in lower dose, for at least 3 month. Findings: In horses and greyhounds rose-hip treatment reduced muscle pain and stiffness when evaluated vs placebo the day after competition (p<0.048). Active treatment improved the speed of animals to some extent. In modestly trained human volunteers active treatment resulted in a significant decline in reported muscle stiffness and pain (p<0.045) and in an increase in the quality of life (p<0.040). The younger group of intensively trained cross-fitters reported a significant decline in pain and stiffness the day after strenuous exercise (p<0.020) and in an improvement of quality of life (p<0.035). Conclusion and Significance: The data suggest that the present rose hip food supplement alleviate pain and stiffness caused by exercise in animals and humans. The present remedy might reduce NSAID abuse in sportsmen and in ordinary people who want to improve their physical performance.
Dr. Houtkooper’s expertise focuses on the relationships of nutrition and physical activity to bone health, obesity prevention and personal fitness. She was selected to be a member of the Science Board for the President’s Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition, and is on the editorial board of the American College of Sports Medicine Health and Fitness Journal. Her research has been funded by competitive grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), foundations and organizations. She has published over 50 peer reviewed research articles and is a co-author of numerous books, curriculums, magazine articles and other publications.
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by excessively low bone density, bone fragility, and increased risk of fracture with relatively minor trauma. This debilitating disease cannot be cured but can be prevented. The etiology of osteoporosis is complex and multi-factorial. Evidence indicates the incidence of osteoporosis may be increasing even more than would be expected based on the increased number of older persons, suggesting a decrease in bone quality from generation to generation. If not prevented, osteoporosis can progress silently and painlessly until a bone fractures. The already staggering medical, social and economic costs related to osteoporosis can be expected to increase unless effective prophylactic and therapeutic regimens are developed. The combination of adequate nutrient intake from food and supplements, exercise and medications may have added benefits for improving bone mineral density and preventing osteoporosis compared to a single intervention. This presentation will focus on key nutritional and exercise factors for the prevention of osteoporosis. It will feature the exercise intervention and findings from the Bone Estrogen Strength Training research study (B.E.S.T) which was a United States National Institutes of Health funded clinical trial. This study demonstrated that bone mineral density could be maintained or increased in the short term (1 year) and the long term (4 years) in postmenopausal women with a progressive resistance and weight-bearing exercise program and adequate nutritional intake. This research study indicated that individuals who consistently did the prescribed volume of weight lifted had the greatest effect on increasing bone mineral density. Health-care professionals may implement the B.E.S.T Exercise program by using the step-by-step educational book entitled The BEST Exercise Program for Osteoporosis Prevention.
National Institute of Nutrition, India
N Arlappa has completed his MD in Community Medicine from NTR University of Medical Sciences, India. He has been working as Nutrition Scientist in the Division of Community Studies, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India, since 1997. He has 18 years research of experience in the field of Public Health Nutrition and published more than 50 scientific papers in peer-reviewed national and international journals. He has also published 4 book chapters, completed more than 40 research studies and published more than 250 technical reports. He has attended and presented more than 25 scientific papers in national and international conferences/workshops. He is the Faculty Member for the Courses of MPH (NIE), MSc (Nutrition) and PG Certificate course in Applied Nutrition at NIN and currently working as a Deputy Director.
Introduction: Rapid nutrition transition is taking place in worldwide, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. As a part of it, there was an increased demand for domestic production and import of oilseeds and vegetable oils from other counties. Consequently, there is a marked increase in consumption of edible oils in Indian populations; from 31.4 g/d/capita in 1993–1994 to 41.6 g/d/capita in 2011–2012. In India, vegetable oils used in cooking represent 80% of the visible fat and there has been a shift from traditional groundnut oil to other oils such as palmolein, mustard, sunflower oils and increased consumption of ghee. Objective: The objective of this communication was to study the time trends in consumption pattern of Fats and Oils among Indian population. Materials & Methods: National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) has been carrying out large scale community based cross-sectional studies in rural, tribal and urban areas of different States of India, covering two-thirds of its geographical area. The latest surveys carried out by the NNMB and other organisations on diet and nutritional status of rural, tribal and urban population was utilised for this communication. Use of different cooking oils and consumption patterns of visible and total fats obtained through 24-hour re-call diet survey among the rural and tribal populations by age group, literacy status and occupation was analysed and presented. Results: Majority of households in India were using mustard oil for cooking purpose followed by groundnut, palm oil, soybean oil, coconut and sunflower oil. In general, at household level, the intakes of visible fats are less than RDI (20gr), and the deficit intake of total fat was >50% of RDA during three time points among tribal and rural population. Similarly, the intake of total fat was grossly deficit against the RDA (40mg) across all the age groups and genders. Likewise, the mean household intakes of visible fats were below the RDI among urban populations. However, the adequacy (≥70% of RDA) of consumption of fats was higher among the adults (≥18 years) as compared to adolescents and children.Conclusions: In general, the dietary consumption of visible fats as well as total fats was grossly deficit among tribal, rural and urban population in India.
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Lebanon
Pregnancy, this particular moment in the life of a woman, requires monitoring of eating behavior changes. However the food choices during pregnancy should be varied and healthy, including the consumption of different food groups. Nutritional status is the process of acquisition and consumption of food, therefore a varied diet is associated with good nutritional status. This is why the nutrition education is a strategy commonly applied to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Thus, it is crucial to assess "The eating behavior and nutritional status of pregnant women living in Keserwan Lebanon”. In order to evaluate the association of different persona, socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with the eating behavior and nutrition in the concerned study category, a cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 150 pregnant women aging between 18 and 40 years randomly selected from the hospitals and clinics located in Keserwan area and equally distributed between different cities and villages of the area according to altitude. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating behavior of the concerned population and to compare it to the recommendation of the food guide pyramid, their level of food awareness and finally to analyze their blood tests in order to detect any nutrients deficiency that they may face during the course of their pregnancy. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, eating behaviour, health, eating patterns, awareness and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected through a validated questionnaire specifically adapted for the purpose of the study. Statistical analysis was carried out and multivariate models were used in order to evaluate the association between several independent variables and the eating behaviour and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women. The final analysis has shown that 48.7% of pregnant women were aged between 30 and 40 years old, 56% had a normal BMI between 18.5 and 24.9, thus age affects the eating behavior, so the older are the pregnant women, and the healthier is their eating behavior. In fact, 80.7% had acceptable food behavior which is based on an equilibrium between both quantity and quality of food, although the recommended foods are foods found in the food pyramid and available in the Lebanese diet. In addition, 68% had an acceptable level of awareness concerning the health importance of good eating habits, therefore, it is positively affecting their food choices. Moreover, 50 % have an acceptable nutritional status which is confirmed from their biological tests. Future governmental or national studies and programs could be settled aiming to increase the awareness about the good eating behaviors and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women.
University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
Keflie, Tibebeselassie, is a PhD candidate in human nutrition at Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. He studied infectious diseases at Addis Abeba University, Ethiopia. Presently, he is working in nutrition and infectious diseases.
Statement of the Problem: There has been extensive focus on the quantity of food produced and consumed, and much less attention given to the nutritional quality of foods and diets. The aims of this study were to assess and examine the interactions between dietary patterns, dietary adequacy, nutritional quality and nutritional status, and to highlight their implications in nutritional interventions. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in North Shewa zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia from December, 2014 to February, 2015. Multistage sampling techniques were employed to recruit study subjects. A total of 640 subjects involved in the study. Data were collected using structured and seven-day recall questionnaires developed from the guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity. Chi-Square test, Kruskal-Walis test, spearman correlation, multiple linear and multinomial regression models were used for inferential analyses. Findings: The main dietary patterns included cereals, vegetables and legumes. About 40% of subjects consumed either plant or animal source of vitamin A and 13.75% consumed meat, organs or fish source of haem iron. The median (range) of food variety score (FVS) and diet diversity score (DDS) were 16 (8-25) and 3.43 (1.14-5.57), respectively. About 28.1% of subjects were malnourished. FVS correlated with DDS (r=0.502, p<0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.145, p<0.0001) and average meal frequency (r=-0.102, p=0.01). The correlation between DDS and BMI was 0.190 (p<0.0001). FVS was determined by family size and educational status, but the later determined DDS. Conclusion & Significance: Poor dietary adequacy and nutritional quality as well as high risks for micronutrient deficiencies were identified. These underlined the implications of nutritional interventions and therefore, it is recommended to improve food and nutrition security in the area.
Szent István University, Hungary
Anna, Kiss (1989) BSc in dietetics; (University of Pécs; Faculty of Health Science); MSc in Nutritional sciences; (Semmelweis University, Budapest), clinical practice at Frankfurter Diakonie Kliniken, Ph.d. student (2nd year) at Faculty of Food Sciences of Szent István University, Department of Food Economics. Topics of Ph.d. thesis: Social burden of obesity. Part-time expert at National Food Chain Safety Office. Field of interest: diet in Obesity and Underweight, sport nutrition, clinical nutrition.
Background: the prevalence of obesity among the Hungarian adult population is one of the highest in Europe, being one of the main factors of mortality.
Motivation: A frequent counter-argument in framework of debates on modification of nutrition structure of population is the high cost of changing to more “healthier” nutritional patters. This is an extremely important problem in a middle-income country, where the food-related expenses are as high as 40% of disposable income of households. Our goal has been to determine the characteristic features of current nutrition structure, cost of it, and the cost of optimised nutrition structure.
Methodology: In framework of a preliminary study of a national-wide survey, face-to-face interviews have been carried out to determine the food consumption structure of 80 Hungarian households in two non-consecutive days, offering information on nutrition of nearly 200 respondents. The sample was distorted, because the dwellers of capital of Hungary, and the intelligentsia have been over-represented in it, but could furnish reliable information on consumption-structure of middle-, and middle-upper class of the society.
Dataset has been analysed by different sophisticated artificial intelligence methods (machine learning algorithms), with purpose of obtaining an optimal classification of most characteristic food consumption patterns.
On base of patterns, offering the best accuracy, as well as internationally accepted data-bases on recommended nutrition intake, taking into consideration the physical activity as well as demographic characteristics of the sample and the actual procuration prices of different products, applying the Linear Programming algorithm of Lindo® Systerms a recommended nutrition structure has been developed for each pattern.
Results: comparative analysis of actual and optimised nutrition intake values highlights the false argument of high cost of healthy nutrition. This fact opens new frontiers for the tailor-made mobile applications, offering a suitable help for consumers of healthy, easy, cost-effective and sustainable food choice.
Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Mona Almujaydil, I am currently pursuing PhD in Human Nutrition at Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Vitamin D deficiency has long been recognised as a cause of skeletal diseases such as osteomalacia and rickets. In recent years, concerns have also spread to a range of non-skeletal conditions (Holick et al., 2011). Hypovitaminosis D is a serious problem in the UK (Sinha et al., 2013). Reduced sunshine exposure and limited dietary sources of vitamin D, coupled with other factors could lead to increased incidence of hypovitaminosis D among the UK population especially amongst ethnic minorities due to their eating habits and high skin pigmentation. The purpose of this study is to determine which ethnic minority groups are living in Manchester (latitude, 53°N) who are at greater risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and needs more awareness and effective recommendations related to diet and lifestyle in order to attain the adequate level of vitamin D. In this study, a questionnaire was used to determine diet and lifestyle factors that are associated with an increase a risk of hypovitaminosis D. Two hundred fifty three respondents who completed the questionnaire. The estimated mean vitamin D intake by food frequency questionnaire was 2.26 µ/d for South Asian, followed by Arab (2.00 µ/d) while the lowest vitamin D intake was among Black people. The average of usual sun exposure was 0.25 hours/day for Arab, South Asian. Other risk factors for vitamin D deficiency included low use of supplements (p > 0.05); being overweight or obese (64 % Arab and 39% Black race); the percentage of smoker and alcohol intake were higher among Black participants than other (13.3% Arab ,45.5% Black race). This study shows that vitamin D intake (food and supplements) and time spend outdoors were low among all ethnic minority groups that may pose a threat to the development of vitamin D deficiency.
Hakodate Goryoukaku Hospital, Japan
Background: We examined the safety of semisolid nutrition by tracking its flow using contrast X-rays.
Method: A bolus of semisolid nutrition containing contrast medium was administered to examine the residual quantity in the stomach over time. A gastrointestinal prokinetic drug was administered when the retention of the contrast medium in the stomach was observed. This study was performed from June 2011 through the end of June 2015.
Results: A gastrointestinal prokinetic drug was administered to 9 patients with the contrast medium remaining in the stomach. The results showed use of the drug to significantly reduce the contrast area in the stomach at 6 hours after administration.
Conclusions: Our results confirmed the necessity of tracking a semisolid nutrient bolus containing contrast medium, employing contrast X-rays with a gastrointestinal prokinetic drug, to examine its useful