Day 2 :
University of Murcia, Spain
Time : 09:00-09:30
Gaspar Ros Berruezo is a Professor of Human Nutrition and Food Science (including Food Safety) at the University of Murcia (UM), serving the institution for more than 25 years. He has been a Post-Doctorate Fulbright Scholar in 1989-90 at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. He is a Project Leader of the VITALIS Centre for Research in Food Science, Human Nutrition and Health in the Mediterranean area. His research interests are in functional foods and ingredients, the metabolism to nutritional functionality (including bioavailability and omics) for normal growth and development on infants and to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases or obesity. He has recently been elected as Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Food Science and Technology of UM.rnrn
Obesity as well as other chronic diseases or other non-communicable diseases (NCD) are of multifactorial nature and typically begins during childhood and adolescence. Its etiology is the result of a complex interaction between genetics and the environment, where unbalanced diets play a very important role, even, during lactation and childhood. In the last 10 to 15 years there have been carried out several international projects to validate the hypothesis that health of the adult is base on the early life nutrition. However there is a big debate about how diet determines health status later and how it is related to macro or micronutrients, microbioma or genome. The objective of the keynote is to overview and present data that support the idea that some specific macronutrients such as protein can modulate gens from tissues to produce a bigger demand of energy intake or how tissues are affected to trigger adverse metabolic and health consequences. Other important factor is how to correlate the intake of baby food with the highest fat and protein percentage that produces a down-regulation of more or less number of genes. Such an effect should be further studied in human infants to learn more about the composition of beikost on early programming. Finally, the debate about infant development and how influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring with the suggestion that an early nutrition programming may have an epigenetic component such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications that may provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Finally, since the overweight and obesity has increased to unexpected levels and if this changed have already taken place, the question is how we can change the already settled situation. Is there any possibility of rolling back?rn
Claudio Adrian Bernal
Keynote: Metabolic implications of trans-fatty acids from ruminant and industrial source on Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk: Experimental and observational evidence
Time : 09:30-10:00
Claudio Adrian Bernal has completed his PhD from University of Litoral, Argentina and his Postdoctoral studies from University of Pittsburgh, USA. He is currently the Head of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Litoral. He has published more than 40 manuscripts, directed national and international research projects and received several Scientific Awards in the field of nutrition. He was the President of Argentine Chapter of the Latino American Society of Nutrition. His research focuses on the impact of dietary fats and functional compounds on experimental animals. In addition he is working in food analysis, infant formulas and functional foods.
High intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been related with several adverse metabolic effects. Clinical and epidemiological findings have supported that high intake of Industrial TFA (I-TFA) has a negative impact on the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Human and animal studies have shown that dietary TFA are highly incorporated in liver, adipose tissue, platelets, aorta and nearly all tissues. Most likely, through this incorporation, I-TFA lead to numerous alterations such as inhibition of n-3 and n-6 PUFA biosynthesis, changes in eicosanoids production and modifications of composition and biological properties of membranes. Additionally, I-TFA raise plasma LDL-Cholesterol, Lp(a) and triacylglycerol levels, lower HDL-Cholesterol concentrations and increase systemic markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Studies with Ruminant TFA (R-TFA) are scarce and have yielded conflicting results, however most epidemiological studies demonstrated no positive correlation between R-TFA and CVD. In a controlled nutritional study a very high intake of R-TFA showed a negative impact on serum lipoproteins but this effect was not observed at achievable intakes of these natural isomers. Results from our laboratory and others clearly showed that trans-vaccenic acid (TVA, the main R-TFA) has a higher metabolization rate compared to elaidic acid and, in addition, it is converted to Rumenic Acid (RA: c9,t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid). Since RA might improve the lipid and glucose metabolism and reduce the inflammatory response, it is recognized as a functional FA. In conclusion, I-TFA clearly have a negative impact on CVD, whereas achievable consumption of R-TFA has not. However, the specific impact of R-TFA requires further investigation to establish the effects on CHD risk and potential health benefits.