Day 2 :
Professor and the Dean of Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Keynote: Nutritionally targeting mitochondria to prevent age-associated diseases: Hydroxytytrosol is a rising stars after resveratrol
Time : 9:30 - 10:10
Dr. Liu received his BS from Xi’an Jiaotong Unviersity in 1982 and PhD of Medical Science from Okayama University School of Medicine in 1994. He completed post-doc training in Dr. Bruce Ames laboratory at University of California, Berkeley and worked as a faculty at University of California at Berkeley, Children Hospital Oakland Research Institute, University of California at Irvine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and Shanghai Institute for Nutritional Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Currently, he is a Professor and the Dean of Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Life Science and Technology and an Adjunct Professor of the School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California. Dr. Liu’s research interests include molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging, stress, and age-/stress-associated degenerative diseases with a focus on nutritional regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. He has published more 170 papers in international journals with more than 5200 times citations （H-index 42）and was elected as one of the “2014 ， 2015 and 2016 Most Cited Chinese Researchers” in the area of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology by Elsevier.
Due to the limitation and ineffectiveness of antioxidants in extending life span and preventing age-related diseases, scientists have being tried to find new solutions beyond antioxidants for delaying aging and preventing age-related diseases. The French paradox-derived resveratrol has become a star of nutraceutical because of the discovery of its effect on Sirtuins regulation by Sinclare’s lab at Harvard on. Nowadays, resveratrol has been widely studied on retarding aging and preventing/ameliorating numerous disorders in cellular and animal models as well as clinical studies. We have recently investigated a number of naturally occurring nutraceuticals and found that hydroxytyrosol (HT) has a unique and potent effect on regulating mitochondrial metabolism (biogenesis and degradation). HT is abundant in olives and virgin olive oil, which are widely used in Mediterranean diets. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of heart disease, prostate and colon cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. One of the possible reasons is that Mediterranean people have a high intake of HT from olive and olive oil. The beneficial effects of HT have been mainly attributed to its antioxidant effect. However, we have demonstrated that HT is an effective mitochondria-targeting nutraceutical in various cellular and animal models, including age-associated macular degeneration, metabolic disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, and muscle atrophy. Because mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in aging and various diseases e，the potent effects of HT on regulating mitochondrial metabolism suggest that HT is a rising star of nutraceutical after resveratrol and will be widely used for delaying aging and preventing/ameliorating age-associated diseases.
Director of the Endemic Institute of Xian Jiaotong University, China
Time : 10:10 - 10:50
YongMin Xiong holds the positions of director of the Endemic Institute of Xi'an Jiaotong University, deputy director of the Key Laboratory of Trace Element and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, China. Her qualifications include a Bachelor of Medicine, PhD of Medicine. She is currently the Committee member of Society of Endemic Diseases of Chinese Medical Association and chairman of Trace Elements Branch in Shaanxi Province Medical Association. She has a particular intrest in the environment and gene interactions in the molecular mechanism of endemic osteoarthritis diseases. She has published more than 30 articles in reputed journals.
Background: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic, disabling and deforming osteoarthropathy, and mainly affects children or teenagers in growth and development period. The mainly pathological changes in KBD are degeneration and necrosis in joint cartilage and epiphyseal plate cartilage. The disease has been found over 160 years, but, its etiology remains unclear. Epidemiological investigation of environmental risks has shown that selenium deficiency may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of KBD and Se supplementation could significantly decrease the incidence of KBD. Thus, it is considered that Se deficiency is a main environmental factor of KBD, however, the exact molecular mechanism for KBD treatment with Se is still obscure.
Objective: Screening of KBD susceptibility genes and related functional experiments were conducted in order to illuminate molecular mechanism of selenoprotein on cartilage cell oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis signaling pathway, and further search new molecular targets for the early diagnosis, warning and treatment of KBD.
Methods: Selenoprotein gene transcription level, protein expression level and enzymatic activity in KBD and normal blood and cartilage samples were detected by using qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot. Selenoprotein single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by using PCR-RFLP and ARMS-PCR. The protein expression levels of inflammation and oxidative stress signaling molecules in whole blood and chondrocytes were detected by western blot. The chondrocyte oxidative damage model was established using hydrogen peroxide tert butyl alcohol (tBHP), and the oxidative damage effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress, inflammation signaling pathways in chondrocyte were observed in the model to explore protective mechanism of selenium.
Results：1. The mRNA expression levels of 9 selenoprotein genes in blood and 4 in cartilage were detected, among which mRNA expression of GPx1, GPx4, SEPP, TrxR and DIO2 in whole blood decreased in the KBD group compared to controls, and mRNA expression of GPx1, GPx4 and DIO2 in cartilage decreased in the KBD group compared to controls. 2. In this experiment, 11 SNPs from 7 important selenoprotein genes were screened, the results showed that GPx1Pro198Leu, GPx4Haplotype(rs713041, rs4807542), SEPS1(rs28665122, rs34713741), SEP15 rs5859 displayed significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequency between the KBD and control groups, while TrxR2(rs5748469, rs1139793, rs5746841)，SEPP1(rs7579) and DIO2 (rs225014) showed no significant differences. 3. The protein expression levels of inflammation and oxidative stress signal transduction pathways were observed between KBD patients and controls. The protein expression levels of PI3K/AKt, ERK, JNK, Nrf2-ARE, NFκB and AP1 signal molecule in KBD group were significantly higher than that in control group, while protein expression levels of ERK in KBD patients was decreased than that in control group, indicating that signaling pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis were disordered in KBD patients. 4. In genotype subgroup analyses, GPx enzyme activity decreased in the variant genotype GPx1Pro198Leu, and PI3K/AKt signaling pathway were up-regulated in the variant genotype (AA) individual in SEPS1-105G>A (rs28665122). These suggested that selenoprotein polymorphism had important role in regulating GPx enzyme activity and PI3K/AKt signaling. 5. 300 μmol/L tBHP could induce apoptosis and suppress cell survival in human chondrocyte C28 cells, the up-regulation of protein expression levels of c-jun, p-c-jun, MEKK1, p-JNK, AP-1 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed. Pre-protection with Na2SeO3 (0.05 μg/mL, 0.1 μg/mL) could ameliorate the cell apoptosis, inhibit the ROS generation, and regulate the protein expression levels of the signaling molecular.
Conclusions: The results indicated that some important SNPs of selenoprotein are associated with the risk of development of KBD, including GPX1Pro198Leu, GPx4 (rs713041, rs4807542), SEPS1G-105A, sep15rs5859, which might influence inflammation or oxidative stress signal pathways in KBD patients. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress might be mediated via up-regulation of PI3K/Akt, JNK, NFκB and AP1 signaling pathways related to inflammation and oxidative stress, and Na2SeO3 has an effect of anti-apoptosis by down-regulating the signaling pathways.
- Renal Nutrition & Metabolism | Nutritional Biochemistry | Nutritional Value & Quality of Foods | Current advances in Nutrition & Food Research | Holistic/ Integrative Nutrition | Plant & Livestock Nutrition | Food & Nutritional Disorders
Lecturer and researcher at Nha Trang University, Vietnam
Title: Effect of extraction solvents on saponin content and antioxidant capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) fruit.
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Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham has over 10 years experience in research and teaching in the Food related subjects. Ms Pham is a lecturer and researcher at Nha Trang University, Vietnam. Presently, she is undertaking her PhD program at the University of Newcastle, Australia on a project entitled: “Extraction, isolation and identification of bioactive compounds of Tuckeroo fruit as novel therapeutic agents for prevention of pancreatic cancer”. She is a member of the Australian Pancreatic Cancer Research group and has presented her reseerach studies in various international conferences.
The Tuckeroo fruit is native to Australia and was found as a rich source of saponins, which are linked with various health benefits. As solvents play an important role in the extraction process due to their various polarities, this study aimed to determine the effect of five solvents including water, absolute ethanol, 50% ethanol, absolute methanol and 50% methanol on the total saponin content (SC) and antioxidant capacity of the Tuckeroo fruit. Freeze-dried fruit samples were prepared from the ripen fruit, and were extracted in each solvent at a ratio of 100:1 mL/g, using an ultrasonic bath set at 40 C, 150 W for 30 minutes. SC and antioxidant capacity were spectrophotometrically measured and results were expressed as Aesin and trolox equivalent per gram of sample (AE/g and TE/g, respectively). Results showed that absolute methanol gave the highest yield of SC (1019 mg AE/g DW), followed 50% ethanol (1009), 50% methanol (802), absolute ethanol (672) and water (377) (mg AE /g DW). Results from the three antioxidant assays (ABTS, CUPRAC and FRAP) also revealed that absolute methanol gave the high antioxidant capacity, although the values were lower than those of 50% methanol. The findings of the current study further confirm that solvent has a significant impact on extraction yields of bioactive compounds. To obtain the extract enriched with saponins and potent antioxidant capacity from Tuckeroo fruit for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries, absolute methanol is recommended as the most effective extraction solvent.
Xi′an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, China
Title: Selenium increase the clearance of immune complexes in Kashin-Beck Disease, an endemic osteochondropathy
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Xiaoxia Dai has completed her PhD in the year of 2006 from Xi’an Jiaotong University and postdoctoral studies from University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Now she is the researcher and teacher in School of Public Health, Xi′an Jiaotong University Health Science Center. She published more than 20 papers and has been serving as a member of the society of trace elements in shaanxi province.
Many studies suggest that adequate intake of Se is required to ensure optimal immune function and to prevent malignancy. Various components of the immune system fail to function correctly if there is dietary Se deficiency. In the present study, the effect of selenium supplements on the clearance of immune complexes of patients with KBD was evaluated. The effect of different selenium preparations on (1) erythrocyte selenium content, (2) activities of glutathione peroxidase, (3) erythrocyte immune adherence function, and (4) circulating immune complexes (CIC) content of patients with KBD was determined. The effect of sodium selenite and selenium yeast were also compared.
In this randomized study, fifty Kashin-Beck disease patients from the endemic area, aged 13-16 years, were divided into two groups and were given either selenium yeast or sodium selenite orally to provide 200µg of selenium per day for 12 weeks. After supplementing with selenium for 12 weeks, erythrocyte selenium level, glutathione peroxidase activity, and E-C3bRR showed significantly high values, the difference in E-ICRR content was not significant. The effect of selenium in enhancing blood selenium levels and the clearance of immune complexes is greater when supplements provided as selenium yeast is used as compare to sodium selenite. This work was supported by the National Nature Scientific Foundation of China (Grant No. 81673117 and 81573140).
Researcher in Kaposvár University, Hungary
Title: Enzymatic Degradation of Sodium alginate, Chitosane and Pectin resulted in oligosaccharides with boosted prebiotic index
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Dr. Iman Mirmazloum has expertise in medicinal plants, natural product supplementation and novel food products. His main research area is on molecular mechanisms of plant secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Iman is currently involved in interesting research projects in Kaposvár University (Hungary) to develop new functional food products with enhanced health promoting properties. He is going to present a report (poster) about enzymatically produced Sodium alginate, Chitosane and Pectin oligosaccharides with boosted prebiotic index.
Scope of the research: Prebiotics are getting more and more into the forefront of interest of researchers and suppliers, as these non-digestible polysaccharides are of justified health promoting impact due to the facilitation of the growth of certain beneficial, health-associated gut bacteria. Their positive physiological effects might efficiently be utilized by several segments of the food industry. Sodium alginate, chitosane and pectin are commonly used polysaccharide molecules in relevant food industrial application. The scope of this research was to increase their biological value by enzymatic digestion and enhancing their prebiotic activity.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Sodium alginate, chitosan and pectin have been subjected for enzymatic degradation by Pectinase, Lactase, β-Galactosidase, Glucosidase and two commercial blended enzymes mixture to produce their corresponding oligosaccharides with plausible prebiotic effect. The enzymes have been studied for their optimum reaction condition (pH and temperature) and consequently their potential activity on breaking the tow polymers. The reaction products were then subjected for both analytical and microbiological assays, in order to establish the quality, quantity, and the prebiotic effect of degradates, respectively. The Prebiotic index of the obtained oligosaccharides has been assessed using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus casei 2756. Casei, as bacterial representatives.
Findings: Thin layer chromatography revealed the enzymatic degradation pattern of the studied macromolecules. The results showed an enzyme quantity oriented reaction rather than time or substrate concentration oriented interaction. Almost the same amount of hydrolysates has been released from 0.1 and 1% pectin solutions as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis from the carbohydrate polimers. The highest prebiotic indices have been established for the pectin degradates yielded by pectinase, and the alginate oligosaccharides after 24h co-culture with glucosidase enzyme. Pectin and chitosane degradates also enhance significantly the bacterial culture. It can be concluded that the hydrolysed polysaccharides can be applied as prebiotic elements to be supplemented in functional foods.
President, Association for Pediatric Education in Europe
Title: The influence of lipids intake of Lactating women diet and those of the Own Human Milk in France
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Claude Billeaud received his MD degree from the Medical University of Bordeaux ( France) in 1979 after a graduation in human cytogenetics (1976). He then studied pediatrics and has been the Clinical Assistant Director of Bordeaux University in the departments of Pediatrics, Neonatology and Intensive Care since 1983.
He currently serves as a pediatrician in the neonatal unit at the Children’s Hospital of Bordeaux, as a scientific manager of Bordeaux-Marmande human milk bank, as a lecturer and head of research (HDR : Habilitation to direct research) in neonatal nutrition at the Medical University of Bordeaux.
His particular interest in research led him to graduate in Biology and Health (1988, Bordeaux), be awarded a master in statistics applied to clinical research ( 1991, Montreal) and complete a PhD in nutrition and food science (2000, Bordeaux).
Along his career he has often been invited as a guest professor specialised in nutrition and neonatology in various universities abroad ( Montreal, Corrientes in Argentina).
Over the last 35 years, he has been an active member of different scientific organisations, either French, European or American, specialised in perinatal medicine (neonatology, pediatrics and nutrition). In this instance, he has served as the President of the Association for Pediatric Education in Europe (A.P.E.E) since 2008 and behalf APEE he is Member of European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP).
He has also been very involved in the French human milk banking association (ADLF) for more than 10 years, sharing his academic knowledge focused in nutrition and his long clinical experience in neonatology. He is currently carrying out several researches on the composition of human milk.
As an expert in nutrition and perinatal medicine, he is also the author and co-author of numerous scientific publications.
Feeding lactating women and composition of Human milk (HM) from 1997 to 2014 in France
1) INTRODUCTION / OBJECTIVE: The latest recommendations to increase intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3. Indeed, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) are the essential precursors of long chain PUFA respectively, arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are essential for cognitive development of the newborn. Furthermore the LA excess foster obesity. This study looks at the monitor French consumption of PUFA from 1997 to 2014, following the fatty acid composition (FA) of HM that reflects FA consumption of the lactating mother.
2) MATERIALS and METHOD: Samples of mature HM was collected in the morning between 1 and 3 months post partum across 4 clinical trials conducted in 1997 (n = 16 HM), 2007 (n = 142), 2012 (n = 22) and 2014 (n = 80). The FA composition of HM was determined by direct transesterification and analyzed by GC-FID and compared by ANOVA followed a testing and Kruskall Wallis. Dietary survey were analyzed by the BILNUT software.
The data acquired in France between 1997 and 2014 have shown that the rate of ALA increased 84% and those in LA were down 25%. These changes induce a decrease in the ratio LA / ALA 60% (27.6% in 1997- 10.7% in 2014) . DHA rate improved by 13% between 2007 and 2014 (0.24% to 0.29% of FA in 2014) whereas the ARA is stable. Potentially harmful trans FAs rates have fallen by 50% since 1997 following the improvement of the quality of French margarines. Dietary surveys have shown a 25% decrease in energy intake in 17 years, a deficiency in calcium, zinc, Magnesium, vitamins A, E, D, B5, B6, B9.
4) CONCLUSION : The studies conducted since 1997 have shown a modification of the content of n-3 and n-6 of the HM, reflecting changes in feeding habits, closer to the current recommendations. In this context, should be promoted firstly declining ratio LA / ALA (5-10) by the consumption of oil or margarine rich in ALA to optimize biosynthesis of ALA to DHA and DHA provide directly by the consumption of fatty fish.
Manipur University, India.
Title: Effect of Cooking on the nutritional properties of two small indigenous fishes of Eastern Himalayas, Manipur, India
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Chungkham Sarojnalini was born on 1st Feb. 1958. B.Sc. Zoology honour Gauhati University 1979; M.Sc. In Life Sciences Fishery specialization J.N.U Centre, Imphal 1982; Ph.D in Fish and Fisheries in Manipur University 1989. Working as an associate professor in department of life sciences Manipur University. Published 40 international and national paper in peer review journal. Her research interested areas are Biochemical aspects of fresh and processed fishes of plain and hill stream fishes. Dr. Sarojnalini was reviewer of the European food research and Technology, SPRINGER. Life member of the Journal of food Science & Technology, Mysore., Life member of the Fisheries Technologists (India), Cochin., Member, Inland Fishery Society of India., Member Zoological Society of India., Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation Society, India, Lucknow., Member Ichthyological Society Of Japan.
The effect of cooking methods (frying, steaming and curried) on the nutritional quality of two small indigenous fishes viz., Amblypharyngodon mola and Esomus danricus of the Eastern Himalayas were determined. Cooking significantly increased the contents of protein and ash in the two small fishes. The maximum protein content was recorded in curried A.mola (20.77%). The lowest lipid content was found in the steamed E. danricus (0.83%) and highest lipid was obtained in fried E.danricus (41.56%). A significant (p<0.05) reduction in moisture content was observed in all different cooking methods A.mola and E.danricus. The lowest moisture content was recorded in fried A.mola (22.50%) and highest moisture was found in raw A.mola (74.69%). The carbohydrate values of two raw fishes were 3.98% and 5.62%. The energy values of two raw samples were 149.2 and 143.26Kcal/100g. The higher energy values were found in fried samples of the two fishes. The studied fishes have antioxidant property and highest activity was obtained in curried A.mola (0.11μg/ml). The ranges of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as Docosahexanoic, Eicosapentaenoic, Arachidonic, Linolenic and Linoleic acids were 0.12-2.91mg/100g, 0.04-0.73mg/100g, 0.07-2.03mg/100g, 0.22-3.7mg/100g and 1.01-2.30mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that cooking methods had considerable effects on proximate composition, antioxidant property and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The study showed that the small indigenous fishes are good sources of protein, energy, polyunsaturated fatty acid and antioxidative compounds. Therefore consumption of small size fishes could found high energy and prevent the deficiency of malnutrition, cardiovascular disorders and brain function in the developing countries, because the ratio of n:3/n:6 is a marker of the biomedical significance for fish oils.
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand.
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Dr. Thunnalin Winuprasith* is a faculty member of Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University. She got a master’s degree and Ph.D. from Institute of Nutrition and Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, respectively. Her research interest focuses on food product development, food emulsions and encapsulations for nutrition aspect.
The aim of this research was to develop pumpkin puddings which were suitable for elderly in term of texture and nutritional quality. The dessert contains milk protein, pumpkin powder (PP), modified starch, vegetable oil, carrageenan, and sugar. Subjects were grouped into three categories by posterior occlusal contact, according to the Eichner Index. Group A had contacts in four support zones; group B had one to three zones of contact or contact in the anterior region only; and group C had no support zones at all, although a few teeth could still remain. The levels of PP added were varied at 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0% (w/w). The textural parameters and color significantly affected by PP concentration. From sensory evaluation, the suitable PP and carrageenan levels were found to be 6.0% PP with 0.2% carageenan for group A, and 8.0% PP with 0.3% carageenan for group B and C. For group A, the hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and guminess were 351.33 g, 151.40 g.sec, 0.46, and 41, respectively. For group B and C, the hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and guminess were 95.89 g, 105.78 g.sec, 0.44, and 9.34, respectively. The energy distribution of macronutrients including protein, fat, and carbohydrate for all formulations were about 10-15, 25-30 and 55-65%, respectively. In addition, the pumpkin pudding with 8.0% PP contained 1.60 g total dietary fiber (per 100 kcal), which was classified as a source of dietary fiber. This product could be used for improveing nutritional status of elderly.
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand.
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Numphung Rungraung has completed her Master’s degree in Food and Nutrition for Development, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University. She is a researcher of Center of Innovation and Reference on Food for Nutrition (CIRFON), Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University. Her research interest focuses on formulation of food products for nutrition purposes, food processing and storage on antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of food products.
In the elderly population, one of the restrictive factors in food consumption may be that some foods become troublesome to eat as losing their teeth and swallowing dysfunction at an elderly age. The purpose of this work was to develop texture-modified pork ball with varying level of pork (30-38%), lard (20-24%), and tapioca flour (1.8-3.4%) added. All formulated products were investigated in terms of textural properties and sensory evaluation. The result showed that hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness increased whereas adhesiveness decreased, when the pork level increased and the lard and flour decreased. Sensory evaluation was performed by elderly subjects using 5-points hedonic scale and 5-point just-about-right. The subjects were grouped into three categories by posterior occlusal contact, according to the Eichner Index. Group A had contacts in four support zones; group B had one to three zones of contact or contact in the anterior region only; and group C had no support zones at all, although a few teeth could still remain. The result indicated that all developed formulas of texture-modified pork ball had just about right in color, taste and easy to chewing and overall liking score was in the range of like slightly to like moderately. From sensory evaluation, the suitable level of each ingredient was found to be 38% pork, 20% lard and 1.8% flour for group A, and 34% pork, 22% lard, and 2.6% flour for group B and C. This product combinated with other foods could be used for improveing nutritional status of elderly.