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4th International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition

Chicago, USA

Saira Hussain

Saira Hussain

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Australia

Title: Bioactive compounds in canola meal

Biography

Biography: Saira Hussain

Abstract

Background: Canola is a term that refers to cultivars specifically bred from the species Brassica napus L. The species in general is called “rapeseed” or “oilseed rape” (Fang, Reichelt, Hidalgo, Agnolet, & B, 2012; Yang et al., 2014). Canola is mainly produced for the production of canola oil. The meal which remains after oil extraction is of relatively low value and is used mainly for animal feed. This meal may have additional value in the pharmaceutical industry if potential health beneficial bioactive compounds with the ability to combat several modern day ailments could be identified. A combination of alcohols with water appeared to be more efficient than using a single pure solvent for most plant extractions (Chavan, Shahidi & Naczk, 2001; Xu & Chang, 2007), possibly because a combination of solvents is capable of extracting a range of less polar aglycones and sugar attached glycosides (Escribano-Bailon & Santos-Buelga, 2003). Meal extracts produced using different solvents were assessed in different bioassays to identify potential anticancer, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antioxidant, and blood pressure-lowering abilities. Objectives: Canola meal extracts should be prepared different solvents and their characterization. Further identification and characterization of protease inhibitors will be done. Invitro antioxidant and bioactive properties of extracts will be determined their effect will be confirmed through cellular assays. Methods: All canola meal extracts (CMEs) were named according to solvent used for extraction with meal such as water extract (WE), methanol extract (ME), ethanol extract (EE), acetone extract (AE), butanol extract (BE), chloroform extract (CE) and hexane extract (HE). The phytochemical and antioxidant activities in all these extracts were determined by reagent based assay along with High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS) (Obied et al., 2013). Ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography was done for the purification of protease inhibitors. All these extracts were used for the anticancer activity based on topoisomerase inhibition, antidiabtic activity by Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzyme inhibition, antihypertensive activity by Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Cellular assay was done for the inhibition of fat cells using mesenchymal stem cells. Results: The extracts showed varying levels of both the topoisomerase-1 poisoning and inhibition activities which are indicators of anticancer properties. Acetone, butanol, and hexane extracts showed antiobesity activity, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation without causing cell toxicity. However, butanol, acetone and water extracts showed high antidiabetic activity by inhibiting enzyme DPP4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase IV), that plays a major role in glucose metabolism and degradation of incretin called GLP-1 (Glucagon like Peptide). The acetone and methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity. Several protease inhibitors have been implicated in the treatment of different diseases including HIV and diabetes. Protease inhibitors (PIs) were extracted from canola meal and purified to homogeneity from two different canola genotypes. Both the purified PIs exhibited different molecular weight and IEF properties, and displayed antidiabetic activities. Canola genotype 1 compared with genotype 2 showed very strong antidiabetic activity. Water extracts and only the purified protease inhibitor from the genotype 1 showed strong antihypertensive activity through the inhibition of Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Conclusions: These potential bioactive and health-functional properties of canola meal extracts may increase the profitability for farmers, processors, food manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry.